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Sugiyama S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morita S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2015

Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, 'time to flower opening∗ and Vase life', for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion 'gross flower opening∗ which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life. Source


Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

Senescence of carnation flowers is characterized by autocatalytic ethylene production from petals and subsequent wilting of the petals. Recent studies on the regulation of ethylene production and wilting in senescing carnation petals revealed that (1) petal senescence is triggered by ethylene evolved from the gynoecium during natural senescence, (2) ethylene production in the gynoecium is induced by a factor(s) other than pollination signals in carnation flowers lacking anthers, (3) there are two subsets of ethylene responses in the petals, one responsible for autocatalytic ethylene production and the other for wilting, (4) expression of genes involved in the execution of petal withering is differently regulated between ethylene-dependent or -independent senescence. Furthermore, it was revealed that the generation of transgenic carnation without detectable ethylene production is useful to prolong the vase life of cut carnation flowers. JSHS © 2011. Source


Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Tateishi A.,Nihon University | Sugiyama S.,Kyoto Prefectural University
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2013

A mixture of xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO) was prepared from xyloglucan (XG) of tamarind seed gum by digestion with Aspergillus recombinant XG-specific xyloglucanase and subsequent purification by ethanol fractionation. The XGO mixture contained XG7, XG8, and XG9 at the ratio of 1: 4: 5, which was almost identical to the literature value of constituent subunits ratio of 1.2: 3.8: 5. The XGO mixture at 1% promoted flower opening in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars, such as 'Pure Red' and 'Lillian'. On the other hand, there was no effect on other cultivars, such as 'Collin', 'Light Pink Barbara', and 'Mule'. Promotion of flower opening by 1% XGO was exhibited earlier than that by glucose or sucrose at 1% in 'Pure Red' carnation. Separate application of XG7 or XG9 stimulated flower opening in 'Pure Red' carnation, suggesting that all the constituents in the XGO mixture were effective in stimulating flower opening. Based on these observations, the mechanism of action of XGO on carnation flower opening and its future practical use as a flower-opening agent are discussed. © 2013. Source


Sugiyama S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology
Horticulture Journal | Year: 2015

2,4-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) was shown to prolong the vase life of cut flowers of spray-type ‘Light Pink Barbara’ (LPB) carnation, mainly due to the reduced ethylene production caused by inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in the flowers. In addition, 2,4-PDCA has been suggested to accelerate flower opening in the flowers (Satoh et al., 2014). In the present study, we successfully developed a procedure to evaluate the activity of chemicals to accelerate flower (bud) opening by determining the shortened time (in days) to flower opening. Using this procedure, we could show the activities of several PDCA analogs to accelerate flower opening, in addition to their already-known activity to extend the vase life in cut flowers of ‘LPB’ carnation. Judging from their effectiveness in the acceleration of flower opening and extension of vase life, 2,3-PDCA and 2,4-PDCA were thought to be suitable agents for treatment of the flowers. The present study confirmed that PDCAs accelerate flower opening and retard senescence, which increase the number of open flowers, resulting in extension of the vase life of cut flowers of ‘LPB’ carnation. © 2015 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All rights reserved. Source


Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Satoh S.,Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | Kosugi Y.,Kagawa University | Sugiyama S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Ohira I.,Kagawa University
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

2,4-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) is a structural analog of 2-oxoglutarate and has been shown to inhibit 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases by competing with 2-oxoglutarate, and ethylene production in detached carnation flowers by competing with ascorbate on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase action. In the present study, the inhibition of ACC oxidase action by PDCA was confirmed with a recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli from carnation DcACO1 cDNA. PDCA had various effects on ethylene production in cut 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)' carnation flowers; ethylene production was accelerated or delayed in some flowers, whereas it did not change in others as compared to untreated control flowers. This varied action of PDCA may be caused by its possible combined actions; that is, inhibition of ACC oxidase action as well as its action on unidentified biochemical processes which use 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate, such as the biosynthesis and inactivation of gibberellins. Meanwhile, PDCA treatment significantly prolonged the vase life of bunches of cut 'LPB' carnation flowers; the magnitude of the extension of vase life was 53, 111, and 135% at 0.3, 1, and 2 mM PDCA, respectively, as compared with the non-treated control. Also, PDCA lengthened the vase life of 'Mule' carnation flowers. The present findings suggest the potential of PDCA as a preservative for cut flowers of spray carnations. © 2014 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All right reserved. Source

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