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Tajima K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ohmori H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tohno M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ohtsu H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2013

Metabolically active microbiota of the porcine terminal ileum mucosa was analyzed by RT-PCR of 16S rRNAs. The majority of 1951 sequences retrieved (24.8%) displayed the closest similarity to segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). Phylogenetic analysis inferred the host-specific clusters of SFB sequences suggesting the host-specific selection of this group of bacteria. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Iio W.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Iio W.,Ibaraki University | Takagi H.,Ibaraki University | Ogawa Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 6 more authors.
BMC Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Background: Suppression of body weight and symptom of anorexia are major symptoms of depression. Recently, we reported that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) induced suppression of body weight gain and anorexic feeding behavior in rats. These abnormalities were the result of disrupted malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. However, the condition of peripheral leptin and its hypothalamic downstream signal molecules which regulate hypothalamic malonyl-CoA level in the CSDS-exposed rats (CSDS rats) is still unknown.Results: CSDS rats showed suppressed body weight gain and food intake. The weight of the CSDS rats' epididymal white adipose tissues was decreased when compared to the control rats. The plasma cholesterol concentration was decreased significantly in the CSDS rats compared to the control rats (P < 0.05). The plasma glucose concentration was slightly decreased in the CSDS rats compared to the control rats (P < 0.1). The expression of leptin mRNA in epididymal white adipose tissues and the plasma leptin concentration were decreased in CSDS rats. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the hypothalamic downstream signals of leptin, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), was decreased in CSDS rats.Conclusions: Our results indicated that decreased peripheral leptin expression in CSDS rats could down-regulate the hypothalamic downstream signaling pathways of leptin while suppressed food intake. These data indicate that CSDS induces the down-regulation of hypothalamic AMPK following the elevation of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA levels and is independent of peripheral leptin and glucose. © 2014 Iio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Iio W.,Ibaraki University | Iio W.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Tokutake Y.,Ibaraki University | Tokutake Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Suppression of body weight and eating disorders, such as anorexia, are one of the major symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression. However, the mechanisms of weight loss and reduced appetite in depressive patients and in animal models of depression are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of anorexia resulting from depression using socially defeated rats as an animal model of depression. Socially defeated rats showed suppressed body weight gain, enlarged adrenal glands, decreased home cage activity, decreased food intake, and increased immobility in the forced swim test. These results are representative of some of the core symptoms of depression. Simultaneously, we observed decreased levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) and increased levels of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus of socially defeated rats. Hypothalamic malonyl-CoA controlled feeding behavior and elevation of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus induced inhibition of food intake. Our findings suggest that the suppression of body weight gain caused by social defeat stress is caused by anorexic feeding behavior via an increased concentration of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Matsukwa N.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology Inc. | Matsumoyo M.,Hokkaido University | Bukawa W.,CombiCorporation | Chihi H.,Fuji Women's University | And 3 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Oral administration of edible bird's nest extract (EBNE) improved bone strength and calcium concentration in the femur of ovariectomized rats. Dermal thickness was also increased by EBNE supplementation, whereas EBNE administration did not affect the serum estradiol concentration. These results suggest that EBNE is effective for the improvement of bone loss and skin aging in postmenopause all women.


Iio W.,Ibaraki University | Iio W.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Matsukawa N.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology Inc. | Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2012

Taurine, 2-aminoethylsulfonic acid, is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has various important physiological functions as a neuromodulator and antioxidant. Taurine is expected to be involved in depression; however, knowledge regarding its function in relation to depression is limited. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the effects of oral taurine administration on antidepressant-like behaviors in rats and depression-related signal transduction in the hippocampus. In behavioral tests, rats fed a high taurine (HT: 45.0 mmol/kg taurine) diet for 4 weeks (HT4w) showed decreased immobility in the forced swim test (FS) compared to controls. However, rats fed a low taurine (LT: 22.5 mmol/kg taurine) diet for 4 weeks or an HT diet for 2 weeks (HT2w) did not show a significant difference in FS compared to controls. In biochemical analyses, the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 in the hippocampus was not affected by taurine administration. However, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase3 beta (GSK3β) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were increased in the hippocampus of HT4w and HT2w rats. Phospho-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was increased in the hippocampus of HT4w rats only. Moreover, no significant changes in these molecules were observed in the hippocampus of rats fed an HT diet for 1 day. In conclusion, our findings suggest that taurine has an antidepressant-like effect and an ability to change depression-related signaling cascades in the hippocampus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Cueno M.E.,Nihon University | Imai K.,Nihon University | Matsukawa N.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology Inc. | Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2013

Butyric acid (BA) is a major extracellular metabolite produced by anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria and is commonly deposited in the gingival tissue. BA induces mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro; however, its effects in vivo were never elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of butyric acid retention in the gingival tissues on oxidative stress induction in the jugular blood mitochondria. We established that BA injected in the rat gingival tissue has prolonged retention in gingival tissues. Blood taken at 0, 60, and 180 min after BA injection was used for further analysis. We isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2), heme, superoxide (SOD), and catalase (CAT) to determine BA effects. We found that H2O2, heme, SOD, and CAT levels all increased after BA injection. This would insinuate that mitochondrial oxidative stress was induced ascribable to BA. © 2013 Cell Stress Society International.


Toyoda A.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Toyoda A.,Ibaraki University | Iio W.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Iio W.,Ibaraki University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2014

The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and emotional regulation. The hippocampus' function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal pole being more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory, and the temporal pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. In this study, we present findings aimed at checking the expression level of the genes encoding neurotrophins and their receptors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and their receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) in the hippocampus along the septotemporal axis. Using real-time PCR, several different expression patterns were observed. Remarkably, the expression of both NT-3 and TrkA genes in the septal hippocampus was higher than in the middle and temporal hippocampus. Higher expression of NT-3 and TrkA may implicate active neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the septal hippocampus because more neurogenesis occurs in the septal than the temporal DG of rats. Finally, the results obtained in this study emphasize the importance of choosing the hippocampal portion along its septotemporal axis for any hippocampal molecular and biochemical experimental studies. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

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