Ohno T.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Tanaka T.,Kyoto University |
Sakagami M.,Nihon Fukushi University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2010
Increasing attention is being paid to participatory watershed management, ranging from participation in administrative decision-making concerning larger-scale watersheds to participation in substantial management activities in smaller-scale watersheds. This article argues that individual participatory behavior in watershed management is affected by social capital and examines the effects of four different types of social capital using survey data from the Yodo River watershed in Japan. Our findings suggest that social capital has an impact on participation in watershed management, but it functions differently according to type of social capital. Notably, analysis reveals adverse effects between bonding social capital and bridging social capital on participation in government-led activities. This finding implies the need to examine the effects of social capital by type, and signals caution that present participants in activities by government are skewed toward those who possess bridging structural and cognitive social capital. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Song Y.,Kyoto University |
Njoroge J.B.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Morimoto Y.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013
Drought-induced anomalies in vegetation condition over wide areas can be observed by using time-series satellite remote sensing data. Previous methods to assess the anomalies may include limitations in considering (1) the seasonality in terms of each vegetation-cover type, (2) cumulative damage during the drought event, and (3) the application to various types of land cover. This study proposed an improved methodology to assess drought impact from the annual vegetation responses, and discussed the result in terms of diverse landscape mosaics in the Mt. Kenya region (0.4 N 35.8 E ~ 1.6 S 38.4 E). From the 30-year annual rainfall records at the six meteorological stations in the study area, we identified 2000 as the drought year and 2001, 2004, and 2007 as the normal precipitation years. The time-series profiles of vegetation condition in the drought and normal precipitation years were obtained from the values of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI; Huete et al. 2002), which were acquired from Terra MODIS remote sensing dataset (MOD13Q1) taken every 16 days at the scale of 250-m spatial resolution. The drought impact was determined by integrating the annual differences in EVI profiles between drought and normal conditions, per pixel based on nearly same day of year. As a result, we successfully described the distribution of landscape vulnerability to drought, considering the seasonality of each vegetation-cover type at every MODIS pixel. This result will contribute to the large-scale landscape management of Mt. Kenya region. Future study should improve this method by considering land-use change occurred during the long-term monitoring period. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Chan N.,Kyoto University |
Takeda S.,Kyoto University |
Suzuki R.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Yamamoto S.,Kagoshima University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013
We established allometric models for fallow forests following swidden cultivation, to estimate biomass accurately in the fallows around a village in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar. By harvesting 160 individual trees from 53 species and 132 sample culms from four bamboo species, allometric equations were determined between tree/culm size variables, such as diameter at breast height (D130) and tree/culm height (H), and plant biomass components such as trunk/culm, branch, and leaf biomass in the fallows. The correlation coefficient for the allometric model for total above-ground tree biomass as a function of D1302H was high (0.956), although the value for leaf biomass was relatively low (0.626). In addition, best-fit allometric relationships for four bamboo species were established. All allometric models involving total above-ground biomass for all bamboo species had significantly high R2 values: 0.817 for G. nigrociliata, 0.877 for B. polymorpha, 0.910 for B. tulda, and 0.963 for D. strictus. A comparison between the present models and previously reported equations for above-ground biomass for tropical forests revealed that our allometric models followed the general trend for biomass estimation, with substantial differences among forest types. In addition, our results suggest that when allometric models are developed using destructive sampling methods, either all mixed species combined or select dominant species can be used, although the optimal approach would include models with all species combined to estimate biomass accumulation for mixed-species forests. Using the best-fit allometric models for trees and bamboo, we estimated tree and bamboo biomass at the community level, supplemented by understory and vine biomass. Biomass accumulation in the study area generally increased with fallow age, with a large contribution of bamboo in the fallows. To estimate biomass of secondary forests accurately, especially fallow forests, relevant allometric relationships and the intensity of swidden cultivation must be considered. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Shimada T.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Shimada T.,Kyoto University |
Matsui M.,Kyoto University |
Yambun P.,Research and Education Division |
Sudin A.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011
The genus Meristogenys (Anura: Ranidae), endemic to Borneo, presents serious taxonomic problems despite being one of the commonest frogs in the mountainous regions of this island. We investigated molecular and morphological variations in Meristogenys whiteheadi (Boulenger, 1887) using larval and adult specimens from Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia). We found three allopatric lineages in this species. We regard each of these as a distinct species because they are separated by a large genetic distance, and do not form any monophyletic group. Their morphological characters indicate that the distributional range of M. whiteheadi s.s. is divided into two disjunct areas: Mt Kinabalu (northern Sabah) and northern Sarawak. The two other lineages occupy ranges between those of M. whiteheadi, and represent undescribed cryptic species. One of these, Meristogenys stigmachilus sp. nov., collected from the northern part of the Crocker Range, is distinguished from M. whiteheadi by black spots on the upper lip and dark dots scattered on the back. A second undescribed species, Meristogenys stenocephalus sp. nov., was collected mainly from the southern part of the Crocker Range, and is characterized by the large body size of males and a relatively narrow head. Meristogenys stenocephalus sp. nov. also differs from M. stigmachilus sp. nov. and M. whiteheadi in larval morphology, but larvae of the latter two cannot be differentiated morphologically. We discuss relative tibia length, a diagnostic specific characteristic in the genus Meristogenys, and the relationships between body size and sexual size dimorphism in this genus.© 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 161, 157-183. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.
Sugahara M.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Nishimura Y.,Osaka Medical College |
Sakamoto F.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Zoological Science | Year: 2012
Upon capture in a bee ball (i.e., a dense cluster of Japanese honeybees forms in response to a predatory attack), an Asian giant hornet causes a rapid increase in temperature, carbon dioxide (CO 2), and humidity. Within five min after capture, the temperature reaches 46°C, and the CO 2 concentration reaches 4%. Relative humidity gradually rises to 90% or above in 3 to 4 min. The hornet dies within 10 min of its capture in the bee ball. To investigate the effect of temperature, CO 2, and humidity on hornet mortality, we determined the lethal temperature of hornets exposed for 10 min to different humidity and CO 2/O 2 (oxygen) levels. In expiratory air (3.7% CO 2), the lethal temperature was ≥ 2° lower than that in normal air. The four hornet species used in this experiment died at 4446°C under these conditions. Hornet death at low temperatures results from an increase in CO 2 level in bee balls. Japanese honeybees generate heat by intense respiration, as an overwintering strategy, which produces a high CO 2 and humidity environment and maintains a tighter bee ball. European honeybees are usually killed in the habitat of hornets. In contrast, Japanese honeybees kill hornets without sacrificing themselves by using heat and respiration by-products and forming tight bee balls. © 2012 Zoological Society of Japan.
Ohto C.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Muramatsu M.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Obata S.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Sakuradani E.,Kyoto University |
Shimizu S.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010
An acyclic diterpene alcohol, (E,E,E)-geranylgeraniol (GGOH), is one of the important compounds used as perfume and pharmacological agents. A deficiency of squalene (SQ) synthase activity allows yeasts to accumulate an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, (E,E)-farnesol, in their cells. Since sterols are essential for the growth of yeasts, a deficiency of SQ synthase activity makes the addition of supplemental sterols to the culture media necessary. To develop a GGOH production method not requiring any supplemental sterols, we overexpressed HMG1 encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the genes of two prenyl diphosphate synthases, ERG20 and BTS1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A prototrophic diploid coexpressing HMG1 and the ERG20-BTS1 fusion accumulated GGOH with neither disruption of the SQ synthase gene nor the addition of any supplemental sterols. The GGOH content on the diploid cultivation in a 5-l jar fermenter reached 138.8 mg/l under optimal conditions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Sugiyama A.,Kyoto University |
Ueda Y.,Kyoto University |
Zushi T.,Kyoto University |
Takase H.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Yazaki K.,Kyoto University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field. © 2014 Sugiyama et al.
Sakuradani E.,Kyoto University |
Ando A.,Kyoto University |
Shimizu S.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Ogawa J.,Kyoto University
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2013
Researches related with the application of functional lipids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been conducted in various fields with a view to health and dietary requirements. Novel rich sources other than known natural sources such as plant seeds and fish oils are required for increasing demands of PUFAs. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 produces triacylglycerols rich in arachidonic acid, i.e., ones reaching 20g/l in concentration and containing 30-70% arachidonic acid as total fatty acids. Various mutants derived from M.alpina 1S-4 have led to the production of oils containing various PUFAs. Molecular breeding of M.alpina strains by means of manipulation of the genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis facilitates improvement of PUFA productivity and elucidation of the functions of their enzymes. This review describes practical PUFA production through mutant breeding, functional analyses of the genes of the enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis, and recent advances in unique PUFA production through molecular breeding. © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.
Shimizu N.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Kuwahara Y.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Yakumaru R.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Tanabe T.,Kumamoto University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2012
A total of fifteen saturated fatty acid esters were newly identified from the secretions of an unidentified Anaulaciulus sp. (Julida: Julidae). The fatty acid components of the esters were composed of normal chain acids (from C10 to C14) and of branched chain acids (from iso-C12 to iso-C15 and anteiso-C15). The alcohol moieties were all composed of normal chain alcohols varying from n-butanol to n-octanol. The most abundant component found in the total esters was n-hexyl laurate (64. 7%). Novel compounds identified from the millipede secretion extracts include six branched iso- and anteiso-fatty esters, an odd-numbered C11-fatty acid ester, a C13-fatty acid ester, and a C7-alcohol ester, all of which were previously undescribed natural products. In addition, a characteristic mixture of benzoquinones, such as 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methoxy-6-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone were identified from the secretions, together with trace amounts of 1,4-benzoquinone. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Kuwahara Y.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Shimizu N.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Tanabe T.,Kumamoto University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011
Mandelonitrile benzoate, a minor defense component produced by polydesmoid millipedes, is produced in large amounts together with hydrogen cyanide following shake-disturbances administered to individuals of Nedyopus tambanus tambanus, Parafontaria tonominea, Epanerchodus sp., and Epanerchodus fulvus. These species commonly produce mandelonitrile and benzoyl cyanide (the oxidized product after discharge). The newly generated mandelonitrile benzoate was identified as a product of post secretion Schotten-Baumann reaction under basic conditions of bled bodily fluids (pH ca. 9.0), and was not an enzymatic reaction product. The reaction occurred in vitro even under less basic conditions [1M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8. 0)], and could be defined as a new mechanism of hydrogen cyanide release occurring in roughly half of polydesmoid millipedes. Species possessing no benzoyl cyanide, such as Oxidus gracilis and Cryptocorypha sp., could also produce mandelonitrile benzoate under conditions in which benzoyl cyanide was exogenously provided. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.