Song Y.,Kyoto University |
Njoroge J.B.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Morimoto Y.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013
Drought-induced anomalies in vegetation condition over wide areas can be observed by using time-series satellite remote sensing data. Previous methods to assess the anomalies may include limitations in considering (1) the seasonality in terms of each vegetation-cover type, (2) cumulative damage during the drought event, and (3) the application to various types of land cover. This study proposed an improved methodology to assess drought impact from the annual vegetation responses, and discussed the result in terms of diverse landscape mosaics in the Mt. Kenya region (0.4 N 35.8 E ~ 1.6 S 38.4 E). From the 30-year annual rainfall records at the six meteorological stations in the study area, we identified 2000 as the drought year and 2001, 2004, and 2007 as the normal precipitation years. The time-series profiles of vegetation condition in the drought and normal precipitation years were obtained from the values of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI; Huete et al. 2002), which were acquired from Terra MODIS remote sensing dataset (MOD13Q1) taken every 16 days at the scale of 250-m spatial resolution. The drought impact was determined by integrating the annual differences in EVI profiles between drought and normal conditions, per pixel based on nearly same day of year. As a result, we successfully described the distribution of landscape vulnerability to drought, considering the seasonality of each vegetation-cover type at every MODIS pixel. This result will contribute to the large-scale landscape management of Mt. Kenya region. Future study should improve this method by considering land-use change occurred during the long-term monitoring period. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Ohno T.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Tanaka T.,Kyoto University |
Sakagami M.,Nihon Fukushi University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2010
Increasing attention is being paid to participatory watershed management, ranging from participation in administrative decision-making concerning larger-scale watersheds to participation in substantial management activities in smaller-scale watersheds. This article argues that individual participatory behavior in watershed management is affected by social capital and examines the effects of four different types of social capital using survey data from the Yodo River watershed in Japan. Our findings suggest that social capital has an impact on participation in watershed management, but it functions differently according to type of social capital. Notably, analysis reveals adverse effects between bonding social capital and bridging social capital on participation in government-led activities. This finding implies the need to examine the effects of social capital by type, and signals caution that present participants in activities by government are skewed toward those who possess bridging structural and cognitive social capital. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Chan N.,Kyoto University |
Takeda S.,Kyoto University |
Suzuki R.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Yamamoto S.,Kagoshima University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013
We established allometric models for fallow forests following swidden cultivation, to estimate biomass accurately in the fallows around a village in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar. By harvesting 160 individual trees from 53 species and 132 sample culms from four bamboo species, allometric equations were determined between tree/culm size variables, such as diameter at breast height (D130) and tree/culm height (H), and plant biomass components such as trunk/culm, branch, and leaf biomass in the fallows. The correlation coefficient for the allometric model for total above-ground tree biomass as a function of D1302H was high (0.956), although the value for leaf biomass was relatively low (0.626). In addition, best-fit allometric relationships for four bamboo species were established. All allometric models involving total above-ground biomass for all bamboo species had significantly high R2 values: 0.817 for G. nigrociliata, 0.877 for B. polymorpha, 0.910 for B. tulda, and 0.963 for D. strictus. A comparison between the present models and previously reported equations for above-ground biomass for tropical forests revealed that our allometric models followed the general trend for biomass estimation, with substantial differences among forest types. In addition, our results suggest that when allometric models are developed using destructive sampling methods, either all mixed species combined or select dominant species can be used, although the optimal approach would include models with all species combined to estimate biomass accumulation for mixed-species forests. Using the best-fit allometric models for trees and bamboo, we estimated tree and bamboo biomass at the community level, supplemented by understory and vine biomass. Biomass accumulation in the study area generally increased with fallow age, with a large contribution of bamboo in the fallows. To estimate biomass of secondary forests accurately, especially fallow forests, relevant allometric relationships and the intensity of swidden cultivation must be considered. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Ohto C.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Muramatsu M.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Obata S.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
Sakuradani E.,Kyoto University |
Shimizu S.,Kyoto Gakuen University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010
An acyclic diterpene alcohol, (E,E,E)-geranylgeraniol (GGOH), is one of the important compounds used as perfume and pharmacological agents. A deficiency of squalene (SQ) synthase activity allows yeasts to accumulate an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, (E,E)-farnesol, in their cells. Since sterols are essential for the growth of yeasts, a deficiency of SQ synthase activity makes the addition of supplemental sterols to the culture media necessary. To develop a GGOH production method not requiring any supplemental sterols, we overexpressed HMG1 encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the genes of two prenyl diphosphate synthases, ERG20 and BTS1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A prototrophic diploid coexpressing HMG1 and the ERG20-BTS1 fusion accumulated GGOH with neither disruption of the SQ synthase gene nor the addition of any supplemental sterols. The GGOH content on the diploid cultivation in a 5-l jar fermenter reached 138.8 mg/l under optimal conditions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Shimada T.,Kyoto Gakuen University |
Shimada T.,Kyoto University |
Matsui M.,Kyoto University |
Yambun P.,Research and Education Division |
Sudin A.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011
The genus Meristogenys (Anura: Ranidae), endemic to Borneo, presents serious taxonomic problems despite being one of the commonest frogs in the mountainous regions of this island. We investigated molecular and morphological variations in Meristogenys whiteheadi (Boulenger, 1887) using larval and adult specimens from Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia). We found three allopatric lineages in this species. We regard each of these as a distinct species because they are separated by a large genetic distance, and do not form any monophyletic group. Their morphological characters indicate that the distributional range of M. whiteheadi s.s. is divided into two disjunct areas: Mt Kinabalu (northern Sabah) and northern Sarawak. The two other lineages occupy ranges between those of M. whiteheadi, and represent undescribed cryptic species. One of these, Meristogenys stigmachilus sp. nov., collected from the northern part of the Crocker Range, is distinguished from M. whiteheadi by black spots on the upper lip and dark dots scattered on the back. A second undescribed species, Meristogenys stenocephalus sp. nov., was collected mainly from the southern part of the Crocker Range, and is characterized by the large body size of males and a relatively narrow head. Meristogenys stenocephalus sp. nov. also differs from M. stigmachilus sp. nov. and M. whiteheadi in larval morphology, but larvae of the latter two cannot be differentiated morphologically. We discuss relative tibia length, a diagnostic specific characteristic in the genus Meristogenys, and the relationships between body size and sexual size dimorphism in this genus.© 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 161, 157-183. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.