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Harada K.H.,Kyoto University | Niisoe T.,Kyoto University | Imanaka M.,Kyoto University | Takahashi T.,Kyoto University | And 29 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Radiation dose rates were evaluated in three areas neighboring a restricted area within a 20- to 50-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in August-September 2012 and projected to 2022 and 2062. Study participants wore personal dosimeters measuring external dose equivalents, almost entirely from deposited radionuclides (groundshine). External dose rate equivalents owing to the accident averaged 1.03, 2.75, and 1.66 mSv/y in the village of Kawauchi, the Tamano area of Soma, and the Haramachi area of Minamisoma, respectively. Internal dose rates estimated from dietary intake of radiocesium averaged 0.0058, 0.019, and 0.0088 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. Dose rates from inhalation of resuspended radiocesium were lower than 0.001 mSv/y. In 2012, the average annual doses from radiocesium were close to the average background radiation exposure (2 mSv/y) in Japan. Accounting only for the physical decay of radiocesium, mean annual dose rates in 2022 were estimated as 0.31, 0.87, and 0.53 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. The simple and conservative estimates are comparable with variations in the background dose, and unlikely to exceed the ordinary permissible dose rate (1 mSv/y) for the majority of the Fukushima population. Health risk assessment indicates that post-2012 doses will increase lifetime solid cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer incidences by 1.06%, 0.03% and 0.28% respectively, in Tamano. This assessment was derived from short-term observation with uncertainties and did not evaluate the firstyear dose and radioiodine exposure. Nevertheless, this estimate provides perspective on the long-term radiation exposure levels in the three regions.

PubMed | Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College, Kyoto Koka Women's University, Kyoto University and Shimadzu Techno Research Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 g/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 g/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

Matsuda S.,Shiga University | Kasuga K.,Gifu University | Hanai T.,Chubu University | Demura T.,Jin-ai University | Komura K.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2016

Background: This study compared the effects of barefoot policy, a policy instructing preschool children to go without shoes, on untouched-toes, which do not touch the ground while standing normally, of preschool children attending kindergartens that follow this rule, to preschooler in kindergartens where they must wear shoes, i.e., no-barefoot policy. Methods: The study used longitudinal data from measurements taken 2years apart of the amount of times. The subjects were 59 children (34 boys and 25 girls) who went to a kindergarten that followed barefoot policy and 179 children (103 boys and 76 girls) who went to a kindergarten that did not follow barefoot policy. Images were taken of the contact surface area of the soles of the children's feet by having them stand on the measurement device with their bare feet. Results: The number of untouched-toes in children participating in the study was determined from the pictures. In boys who attended kindergartens following barefoot policy, the ratio of the children without untouched-toes significantly increased for 2years of childhood (35.3-64.7%). The number of untouched-toes were significantly fewer in boys from kindergartens following barefoot policy than in boys from kindergartens not following the policy, and the magnitude of the difference grew for the two study years (ES: 0.41-0.63). In girls, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the ratio of girls without untouched-toes and the number of untouched-toes. Conclusions: In conclusion, the ground contact of the toes becomes better for boys in kindergarten with a barefoot policy. The results were inconclusive with regard to girls, and other factors may need to be examined. In the future, it will be necessary to increase the number of the subjects and perform detailed examinations. © 2016 Matsuda et al.

Mei L.,Jiangsu University | Mochizuki M.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College | Hasegawa N.,Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity. © 2014 Lin Mei et al.

Demachi K.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Yoshida T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Kume M.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College | Tsuji M.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Tsuneoka H.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2013

To clarify the influence of internal and skin temperature on the active cutaneous vasodilation during exercise, the body temperature thresholds for the onset of active vasodilation during light or moderate exercise under different ambient temperature conditions were compared. Seven male subjects performed 30 min of a cycling exercise at 20 % or 50 % of peak oxygen uptake in a room maintained at 20, 24, or 28 °C. Esophageal (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk) as measured by a thermocouple, deep thigh temperature (Tdt) by the zero-heat-flow (ZHF) method, and forearm skin blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were monitored. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was also monitored non-invasively, and the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the LDF/MAP. Throughout the experiment, the Tsk at ambient temperatures of 20, 24, and 28 °C were approximately 30, 32, and 34 °C, respectively, for both 20 % and 50 % exercise. During 50 % exercise, the Tes or Tdt thresholds for the onset of the increase in CVC were observed to be similar among the 20, 24, and 28 °C ambient conditions. During 20 % exercise, the increase in Tes and Tdt was significantly lower than those found at 50 %, and the onset of the increase in CVC was only observed at 28 °C. These results suggest that the onset of active vasodilation was affected more strongly by the internal or exercising tissue temperatures than by the skin temperatures during exercise performed at a moderate load in comparison to a light load under Tsk variations ranging from 30 °C to 34 °C. Therefore, the modification by skin temperature of the central control on cutaneous vasomotor tone during exercise may differ between different exercise loads. © 2012 ISB.

Ikeda J.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2011

To assess changes in subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls over a 15-year period and investigate factors related to these symptoms. A total of 86 items on physical health (including subjective fatigue symptoms), dietary life, and daily living were investigated and five items on physical activity were measured for approximately 100 female first-year dietetic students at a junior college each October over the 15-year period from 1994 to 2008. A total of 1,547 students (mean age, 19.2 +/- 0.3 years) were studied. Subjects were first divided into two groups using the median subjective fatigue score as the cutoff point, and annual changes in the proportion of students in the high subjective fatigue group were investigated by simple regression analysis. In addition, relationships between the two subjective fatigue groups and each item were investigated. 1) The proportion of students with many subjective fatigue symptoms showed a significantly increasing trend over the 15-year period. 2) Investigation of relationships between subjective fatigue symptoms and each factor revealed significance for many items, including dietary habits, life satisfaction, amount of sleep, and desire for a positive body image. 3) In order to determine which of the items were most strongly related to subjective fatigue symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the 15-year period as well as three 5-year periods into which it was divided. The results showed that the dietary habits score (an indicator of dietary habits) and life satisfaction were related to subjective fatigue symptoms during all four periods. As for other items, relationships were observed for amount of sleep in three, diet and salt intake score in two, and liking for coffee/tea, juice drinks, and oily food, bedtime snack, desire for body image, self-assessment of body type, and health consciousness in one. These findings indicate that perspectives in education for promoting the health of adolescent girls must include attention to dietary habits, satisfaction with life, and correct awareness of body type.

Inoue K.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Kume M.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College | Yoshida T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
Studies in Computational Intelligence | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower limb cooling on the work performance and physiological responses during maximal endurance exercise in humans. Eight male subjects underwent a maximal aerobic test using graded exercise on a cycle ergometer. The subjects wore trousers lined with tubes perfused water at 6 or 32 °C, and the target thigh muscle temperatures were 32 or 36 °C, respectively. The maximal working time was significantly lower during 32 °C than under 36 °C conditions. However, the body temperature, heat storage, heart rate and the total sweat loss were significantly lower under the 32 °C condition compared to those under the 36 °C condition. These results suggest that cooling the lower limbs to reach a thigh temperature of approximately 32 °C can reduce the physiological strain during maximal endurance exercise, although the endurance work performance under the 32 °C condition is lower than that under the 36 °C thigh temperature condition. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Tsuji M.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Kume M.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College | Tuneoka H.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Yoshida T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2014

This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (T̄sk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (P < 0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher (P < 0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss (m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials (P < 0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 T̄sk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that of being semi-nude during light exercise, but was greater during moderate exercise, and the storage of body heat can be reduced by wearing WS during rest periods. © 2013 ISB.

Inoue K.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Yoshida T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Kume M.,Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College
Proceedings - 2014 IIAI 3rd International Conference on Advanced Applied Informatics, IIAI-AAI 2014 | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum muscle temperature required to maintain work performance with attenuation of heat stress. Nine male subjects (23±0.36 year) performed eight 8-sec bouts of maximal cycling exercise at a load intensity of 60% of their peak power output, with a 40-sec resting period between bouts, in a room maintained at 24.8±0.2°C and 52±1% relative humidity. The subjects worn trousers lined with tubes perfused water at 6°C, 17°C, 30°C or 44°C, and the target thigh muscle temperatures were 32°C (32.4±0.2°C), 34°C (34.4±0.2°C), 36°C (36.3±0.1°C) and 38°C (37.5±0.2°C), respectively. The peak power output from first to fourth bouts and the total work output during eight bouts were significantly greater at the 36°C and 38°C conditions than at the 32°C and 34°C conditions (p<0.01), while there were no remarkable differences between the 36°C and 38°C conditions. After 10 minutes of the eight bouts of exercise, the tympanic temperature (Tty) was significantly elevated at the 38°C condition, but fell at the 32°C and 34°C conditions compared to that at baseline (p < 0.01), while the Tty remained constant at the 36°C condition. The heart rate and rating of perceived exertion during eight bouts and the total sweat loss from the start to the end of experiment were significantly greater for the 38°C condition than for the 32°C and 34°C conditions. These results suggest that thigh temperature of approximately 36°C may be optimal to maintain repeated maximal cycling exercise performance with the attenuation of heat stress. © 2014 IEEE.

PubMed | Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2015

Recently, in Japan, the percentage of leanness has risen in young women, and the average birth weight has decreased. An increase in the risk of low birth weight has been reported in lean expectant mothers. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between mothers physique at the beginning of pregnancy and the infants physique, by focusing on sex differences. The participants were 3,722 mothers who attended health checkups for 18-month-old infants in an urban Japanese city. The participants were limited to those with full-term births, thereby excluding the influence of gestational length. A total of 1,287 mothers, with 621 boys and 666 girls, were analyzed. Public health professionals interviewed the mothers, and transferred the required information from their maternity passbooks. We examined the physical characteristics of the mothers and their infants. Partial correlation analysis, adjusted by gestational length and the mothers age at delivery, was applied to study the association between the mothers BMI and the infants physique at birth. In the primipara group, only the boys showed significant positive correlation between the mothers BMI and the birth weight (P = 0.025) and the Kaup index (P = 0.035). In the pluripara group, only the boys showed significant positive correlation between the mothers BMI and the head circumference (P = 0.035). Thus, mothers physique may have a stronger influence on the physique of male infants, compared to female infants. The growth-promoting effect of the mothers physique is more apparent in the infants born to the pluripara.

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