KYODOKEN Institute

Fushimi, Japan

KYODOKEN Institute

Fushimi, Japan
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Sato T.,National Health Research Institute | Hamabata T.,National Health Research Institute | Takita E.,Idemitsu Kosan Co. | Matsui T.,Idemitsu Kosan Co. | And 5 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2017

Porcine edema disease (ED) is a toxemia caused by enteric infection with Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). ED occurs most frequently during the weaning period and is manifested as emaciation associated with high mortality. In our experimental infection with a specific STEC strain, we failed to cause the suppression of weight gain in piglets, which is a typical symptom of ED, in two consecutive experiments. Therefore, we examined the effects of deprivation of colostrum on the sensitivity of newborn piglets to STEC infection. Neonatal pigs were categorized into two groups: one fed artificial milk instead of colostrum in the first 24 h after birth and then returned to the care of their mother, the other breastfed by a surrogate mother until weaning. The oral challenge with 1011 colony-forming units of virulent STEC strain on days 25, 26 and 27 caused suppression of weight gain and other ED symptoms in both groups, suggesting that colostrum deprivation from piglets was effective in enhancing susceptibility to STEC. Two successive STEC infection experiments using colostrum-deprived piglets reproduced this result, leading us to conclude that this improved ED piglet model is more sensitive to STEC infection than the previously established models. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science

Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology | Tsuruta T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology | Nakanishi N.,KYODOKEN Institute | Hikita C.,Idemitsu Kosan Co. | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2013

Porcine edema disease (ED) is caused by Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Post-weaned piglets often suffer from ED as a result of intestinal infection with STEC, which causes impaired growth performance and high mortality. Antimicrobial therapy is a curative treatment for piglets infected with STEC, but the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant STEC has become a serious problem for Japanese pig farmers. Therefore, an alternative strategy other than antimicrobial therapy is needed for the prevention or treatment of ED. In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of Bacillus subtilisDB9011 (DB9011) to prevent the experimental infection of STEC in weaning piglets. Eight 21-day-old piglets were divided into two groups: STEC challenge with the basal diet, and STEC challenge with DB9011 supplemented diet. The challenge was carried out when the animals were 25, 26 and 27 days old using STEC contained in capsules resistant against gastric digestion. All pigs were euthanized at 36 days of age. DB9011 improved the symptoms of ED and decreased the number of STEC in the ileal digesta and feces. Accordingly, oral administration of DB9011 in weaned piglets prevents ED through the suppression of the growth of STEC in the ileum. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology | Kishino E.,The Sugar Lab | Inoue R.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Nakanishi N.,KYODOKEN Institute | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2013

Early weaning induces villous atrophy in the small intestine. Reduction in villous height in the small intestine after weaning is associated with reductions in brush-border enzyme activity. Body weight gain after weaning is, therefore, correlated with villous height. This evidence suggested that the maintenance of small intestinal structure and function after weaning is important for the growth of young pigs. On the other hand, the relationship between villous height and the activity of the digestive enzymes in the small intestine has not been studied with piglets from the suckling to the growing period. Five suckling piglets, four piglets in the proximal stage of weaning, four pigs in the distal stage of weaning and four growing pigs were used. The activities of lactase (LA), sucrase (SA) and maltase (MA) were determined. LA showed a positive correlation with villous height in weaning. SA and MA were positively correlated with villous height from suckling to growing. In a previous study, non-infectious dyspeptic diarrhea was frequently observed in growing piglets on Japanese swine farms. The maintenance of villous height to retain disaccharidase activity may prevent dyspepsic diarrhea in this stage. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Ogawa S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology | Tsuruta T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 8 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2014

Among domestic animals, teat order is only observed in the pig. In order to achieve the healthy growth and weaning of piglets, it is important to elucidate if volume of colostrum secretion and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentrations differ among the teats of a sow. Nine sows were used to evaluate the difference in colostrum secretion volume (CSV) and four of these sows were assessed for IgA and IgG concentrations from each teat. Samples were collected five times during 21h following parturition. Teats were assigned anatomical locations of teat (1 to 7) from anterior to posterior. The CSV of anterior (locations 1 and 2) and middle teats (locations 3-5) was significantly higher than those of posterior teats (locations 6 and 7) throughout the experiment except for 18h post-parturition (P<0.05). The CSV of the teats at location 1 was significantly higher at most collection times than those at locations 6 and 7. A positive correlation of CSV was observed with IgA and IgG concentrations from 12h and 6h post-parturition, respectively (P<0.05). The results suggest that anterior teats secrete greater volumes of colostrum and that these tend to contain higher IgA and IgG than posteriors teats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Tsuruta T.,Hokkaido University | Tsuruta T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Inoue R.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Tsukahara T.,Kyoto Institute of Nutrition and Pathology | And 4 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

A large amount of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) is secreted in the alimentary tract of mammals. It has been reported that S-IgA coats a portion of commensal intestinal bacteria in human and mouse. However, S-IgA-coated bacteria have not been studied in pigs and calves. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of S-IgA-coated commensal intestinal bacteria in each portion of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs and calves. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated bacteria were also analyzed because a considerable amount of IgG is secreted in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs, and in particular, calves. S-IgA- or IgG-coated bacteria were detected in all the segments of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs and calves. The proportion of S-IgA-coated bacteria to total bacteria (i.e. S-IgA coating ratio) varied in the segments of the gastrointestinal tract in pigs, whereas those of calves were nearly the same throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The S-IgA and IgG coating ratios were higher in pigs than in calves for all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

PubMed | Kyoto Prefectural University and KYODOKEN Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

It has been suggested that colostrum is important not only for direct protection from pathogens but also for proper development of immune systems in piglets. In this study, we focused on the effect of colostrum ingestion during the first 24 h of life on early postnatal development of piglet immune systems. Thirty-six piglets from five litters were divided into colostrum-fed (CoF) and colostrum-deprived (CoD) groups. The former group was allowed to suckle normally while formula milk was fed to the latter group during the first 24 h of life. At the weaning period, the concentrations of fecal immunoglobulin (Ig) A and plasma IgG as well as the number of blood leukocyte subsets were analyzed. Fecal IgA and plasma IgG concentrations in the CoF group were more than twice as high as those in the CoD group (P < 0.01). In addition, the number of blood B cells was significantly higher in the CoF group than that in the CoD group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that colostrum ingestion during the first 24 h plays a significant role in early postnatal development of both mucosal and systemic immunity of piglets.

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