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Kampala, Uganda

Kyambogo University , is a public university in Uganda. It is one of the eight public universities and degree-awarding institutions in the country. Wikipedia.

Simonsen P.E.,Copenhagen University | Onapa A.W.,NTD Control Programme | Asio S.M.,Kyambogo University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mayeku W.P.,Makerere University | Omollo N.I.,Kyambogo University | Odalo O.J.,Technical University of Mombasa | Hassanali A.,Kenyatta University
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014

Previously, essential oil of Conyza newii (Asterale: Asteracea, Oliv. & Hiern) growing in the northern part of West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) of Kenya was shown to be highly repellent [RD50 = 8.9 × 10-5 mg/cm2, 95% confidence interval (CL)] to Anopheles gambiae s.s. Fumigant toxicity of the oil to the mosquito was also demonstrated. The major constituents of the oil were found to be monoterpenoids, including (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, geraniol, (R)-(+)-limonene, trans-β-ocimene and 1,8-cineol. In this study, the chemical composition and repellency of essential oils of the plant seedlings collected from West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) and propagated in seven different geographical regions of Kenya [West Pokot (35°E, 1°N), Kilome (37°E, 1°S), Naivasha (36°E, 0°), Webuye (34°E, 1°N), Nyakach (34°E, 0°), Kericho (35°E, 0°) and Nairobi (36°E, 1°S)] were compared. There were significant variations (P < 0.01, 95% CL) in the relative proportions of the six constituents and this was reflected in the repellency of the essential oils (P < 0.01, 95% CL). Higher repellency of the oil was associated with greater proportions of (S)-(-) perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and geraniol, and lower repellency was associated with an increased proportion of (R)-(+)-limonene. The results suggest significant epigenetic (chemotypic) variations in the repellency and composition of C. newii essential oils growing in different regions of Kenya. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Rujumba J.,Makerere University | Kwiringira J.,Kyambogo University
Conflict and Health | Year: 2010

Background: Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results: The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions: Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail the likely escalation of the HIV epidemic. A comprehensive behaviour change communication strategy is urgently needed to address the negative cultural practices. Real progress in the region lies in advocacy and negotiation to realise lasting peace. © 2010Rujumba and Kwiringira; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Source

Kwiringira J.,Makerere University | Kwiringira J.,Kyambogo University | Atekyereza P.,Makerere University | Niwagaba C.,Makerere University | Gunther I.,ETH Zurich
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results: Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion: Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this reversal movement is critical in sustainable sanitation services and should be a concern for all actors. © 2014 Kwiringira et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ocen D.,Jiangnan University | Ocen D.,Kyambogo University | Xu X.,Jiangnan University
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2013

High demand for fresh and healthy breads has necessitated the use of frozen dough to shorten the time and process for making fresh bread. The aim of this study was to study the effect of citrus fiber on breads produced from frozen dough. Citrus orange (Citrus sinensis) by-product Dietary Fiber (DF) was incorporated at hfferent amounts (1.5%) into wheat flour and the dough properties evaluated using Farinograph. The dough obtained were frozen at -18'C for 1 month before being baked. Addition of fiber formulations to wheat flour showed increase in water absorption during dough mixing. Dough stability, development time and breakdown time showed a decreased trend with increase in fiber amounts. There was no significant difference in specific volume between control bread and 1% formulation while the rest showed a significant decrease in specific volume. All breads showed a significant increase in firmness from the control bread with a linear trend. All formulations showed marked increase in the dietary fiber content. Upon evaluation sonsorially by the panelist, control bread was the most acceptable bread followed by 1 and 2% formulations. However, there was no significant difference between the values, while the rest of the breads showed a significant difference with 5% being the least accepted. Low citrus by-product formulations had higher scores for flavor acceptability especially 2% formulation than the control. This study has shown that there is a great potential for production of fiber rich breads from frozen dough with a highly acceptable citrus flavor from citrus by-products. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc. Source

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