Simonsen P.E.,Copenhagen University |
Onapa A.W.,Ministry of Health |
Asio S.M.,Kyambogo University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011
Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Omute P.,Kyambogo University |
Corner R.,Curtin University Australia |
Awange J.L.,Curtin University Australia |
Awange J.L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is a measure of vegetation vigour, and lake water levels respond variably to precipitation and its deficiency. For a given lake catchment, NDVI may have the ability to depict localized natural variability in water levels in response to weather patterns. This information may be used to decipher natural from unnatural variations of a given lake's surface. This study evaluates the potential of using NDVI and its associated derivatives (VCI (vegetation condition index), SVI (standardised vegetation index), AINDVI (annually integrated NDVI), green vegetation function (F g), and NDVIA (NDVI anomaly)) to depict Lake Victoria's water levels. Thirty years of monthly mean water levels and a portion of the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) NDVI datasets were used. Their aggregate data structures and temporal co-variabilities were analysed using GIS/spatial analysis tools. Locally, NDVI was found to be more sensitive to drought (i. e., responded more strongly to reduced precipitation) than to water levels. It showed a good ability to depict water levels one-month in advance, especially in moderate to low precipitation years. SVI and SWL (standardized water levels) used in association with AINDVI and AMWLA (annual mean water levels anomaly) readily identified high precipitation years, which are also when NDVI has a low ability to depict water levels. NDVI also appears to be able to highlight unnatural variations in water levels. We propose an iterative approach for the better use of NDVI, which may be useful in developing an early warning mechanisms for the management of lake Victoria and other Lakes with similar characteristics. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Ocen D.,Jiangnan University |
Ocen D.,Kyambogo University |
Xu X.,Jiangnan University
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2013
High demand for fresh and healthy breads has necessitated the use of frozen dough to shorten the time and process for making fresh bread. The aim of this study was to study the effect of citrus fiber on breads produced from frozen dough. Citrus orange (Citrus sinensis) by-product Dietary Fiber (DF) was incorporated at hfferent amounts (1.5%) into wheat flour and the dough properties evaluated using Farinograph. The dough obtained were frozen at -18'C for 1 month before being baked. Addition of fiber formulations to wheat flour showed increase in water absorption during dough mixing. Dough stability, development time and breakdown time showed a decreased trend with increase in fiber amounts. There was no significant difference in specific volume between control bread and 1% formulation while the rest showed a significant decrease in specific volume. All breads showed a significant increase in firmness from the control bread with a linear trend. All formulations showed marked increase in the dietary fiber content. Upon evaluation sonsorially by the panelist, control bread was the most acceptable bread followed by 1 and 2% formulations. However, there was no significant difference between the values, while the rest of the breads showed a significant difference with 5% being the least accepted. Low citrus by-product formulations had higher scores for flavor acceptability especially 2% formulation than the control. This study has shown that there is a great potential for production of fiber rich breads from frozen dough with a highly acceptable citrus flavor from citrus by-products. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.
Kwiringira J.,Makerere University |
Kwiringira J.,Kyambogo University |
Atekyereza P.,Makerere University |
Niwagaba C.,Makerere University |
Gunther I.,ETH Zurich
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014
Background: While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results: Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion: Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this reversal movement is critical in sustainable sanitation services and should be a concern for all actors. © 2014 Kwiringira et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Mayeku W.P.,Makerere University |
Omollo N.I.,Kyambogo University |
Odalo O.J.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Hassanali A.,Kenyatta University
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014
Previously, essential oil of Conyza newii (Asterale: Asteracea, Oliv. & Hiern) growing in the northern part of West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) of Kenya was shown to be highly repellent [RD50 = 8.9 × 10-5 mg/cm2, 95% confidence interval (CL)] to Anopheles gambiae s.s. Fumigant toxicity of the oil to the mosquito was also demonstrated. The major constituents of the oil were found to be monoterpenoids, including (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, geraniol, (R)-(+)-limonene, trans-β-ocimene and 1,8-cineol. In this study, the chemical composition and repellency of essential oils of the plant seedlings collected from West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) and propagated in seven different geographical regions of Kenya [West Pokot (35°E, 1°N), Kilome (37°E, 1°S), Naivasha (36°E, 0°), Webuye (34°E, 1°N), Nyakach (34°E, 0°), Kericho (35°E, 0°) and Nairobi (36°E, 1°S)] were compared. There were significant variations (P < 0.01, 95% CL) in the relative proportions of the six constituents and this was reflected in the repellency of the essential oils (P < 0.01, 95% CL). Higher repellency of the oil was associated with greater proportions of (S)-(-) perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and geraniol, and lower repellency was associated with an increased proportion of (R)-(+)-limonene. The results suggest significant epigenetic (chemotypic) variations in the repellency and composition of C. newii essential oils growing in different regions of Kenya. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.
Rujumba J.,Makerere University |
Kwiringira J.,Kyambogo University
Conflict and Health | Year: 2010
Background: Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results: The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions: Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail the likely escalation of the HIV epidemic. A comprehensive behaviour change communication strategy is urgently needed to address the negative cultural practices. Real progress in the region lies in advocacy and negotiation to realise lasting peace. © 2010Rujumba and Kwiringira; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dumba R.,Kyambogo University |
Kaddu J.B.,Makerere University |
Wabwire-Mangen F.,Makerere University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2013
Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to stimulate the participation of people in promotion of improved hygiene and sanitation. Objective: To assess the effect of PHAST on intestinal helminth transmission in children under five years. Methods: Three phases namely; (1) Baseline survey (2) PHAST intervention (3) Follow up were conducted. During Phase 1, the subjects' stool samples were examined for presence of helminthic ova and questionnaires administered. In Phase 2, PHAST was conducted only in experimental villages. All subjects in the experimental and control villages were treated thrice with Albendazole. During Phase 3, all steps of Phase 1 were repeated. Results: There was an overall reduction in the prevalence of children infected with helminths after PHAST intervention. Also, comparison of pre-intervention and post-intervention multivariate results indicates that the likelihood of children getting infected with helminths reduced in most of the experimented variables. Conclusion: Health stakeholders should utilize PHAST approach to sensitize communities on the importance of hygiene to curb soil-transmitted helminth infections.
Mutekanga F.P.,Wageningen University |
Mutekanga F.P.,Kyambogo University |
Visser S.M.,Wageningen University |
Stroosnijder L.,Wageningen University
Geoderma | Year: 2010
This study tests a rapid, user-friendly method for assessing changes in erosion risk, which yields information to aid policy development and decision-making for sustainable natural resources management. There is currently a lack of timely, up-to-date and current information to support policy development on sustainable natural resources management in Uganda. The study was carried out in the Ngenge watershed, a typical catchment in the Ugandan Highlands, characterised by deforestation in favour of subsistence agriculture without adequate soil and water conservation measures. The watershed is experiencing soil erosion, sedimentation and flooding problems which are threatening agricultural productivity and food security. Sustainable management of environmental resources is needed to ensure a livelihood for the rural population which is dependent on the land. Historical erosion risk was evaluated in three steps using multi-temporal satellite data. First, current erosion risk was assessed by combining slope and vegetation cover during periods of high intensity rainfall. The data used for the assessment was obtained from public (free) satellite images. Erosion risk was then linked to land use and finally to the change in vegetation cover over the years 1980-2000. The analysis of erosion risk using rainfall, slope and NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetative Index) as a proxy for vegetation cover gives an indication of the current erosion risk in the area. The results of historical vegetation cover change analysis indicate an overall increase in areas under erosion risk in the study area from 1980 to 2000. This method of erosion risk mapping provides a quick and straightforward means for identifying priority areas for interventions for soil and water resource management. Considering that resources are limited, the interventions to be appropriate have to be focused mainly on areas affected by degradation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Ameri F.K.,Kyambogo University
International Journal of Technologies in Learning | Year: 2013
The paper presents the results of the study conducted in three first-class urban Ugandan secondary schools. A multiple case-study investigation was considered appropriate because it was felt necessary to compare the performance of students in Computer Studies. This would add literature of the newly introduced subject in a developing country, like Uganda. The findings of the study revealed that few students had attained proficiency level (25.6 %) in the national Computer Studies examination in the previous five years (2006-2011). There was a gender disparity in the attainment of very high proficiency levels, with females at 4.6 per cent and males at 18.6 per cent. These findings have important policy implications, including the need for increased budgets for teacher training and curriculum development for both secondary and university education, and advocacy for the feminization of Computer Studies. © Common Ground, Florence Kabahamba Ameri 2013.
Twesigye C.K.,Kyambogo University
Quaternary International | Year: 2015
The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their watersheds support over 2000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from single common ancestor within the past 25Ma-10Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. The East Africa rift system (EARS) is the roughly north-south alignment of rift basins in East Africa that defines the boundary between the Somalian and African plates. The EARS is divided into two structural branches that are also oriented roughly north-south. Rifting in the eastern branch began 30-35 Ma in the Afar and Ethiopian Plateau and propagated north-south until it impinged on the strong Precambrian Tanzanian cratonic block, which is in the center of the East Africa Plateau. The timing of the initiation of the western branch of the EARS is uncertain and has been suggested to have begun as early as 25 Ma to as recently as 12-10 Ma. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created Lake Victoria. Since their creation, these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper examines the geologic history, paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes, and human influence and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid fishes using evidence from geologic and molecular data. A drastic decline has occurred in the size of cichlid fishes populations since the beginning of the 20th century, exacerbated by two main factors; an increase in the size of the human population and increased fishing pressure and fish introductions. One of the attendant consequences of such a decline is a reduction in the amount of genetic diversity in the surviving populations due to increased effects of random genetic drift. Information about the amount of genetic variation within and between the remaining populations is vital for their future conservation and management. The genetic structure of a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia, was examined using nucleotide variation of mitochondrial control region sequences and four nuclear microsatellite loci in 128 individuals from seven localities. Forty three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were observed, fourteen of which were geographically localized. We found significant genetic differentiation between the five populations at the mitochondrial locus while three out of the four microsatellite loci differentiated five populations. The possible contributions from human activities such as water pollution, overfishing and fish introductions are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.