Kuwait University | Date: 2016-02-01
The odd/even invert coding for phase change memory with thermal crosstalk devises a cost model that captures Phase Change Memory (PCM) SET/RESET write asymmetries, as well as write disturbs caused by thermal crosstalk. The cost is computed by counting the different types of transitions between the old and the new data to be written to PCM. An Odd/Even Invert data encoding/decoding algorithm makes intelligent decisions based on a cost model by taking into account the number of bit flips, write asymmetry, as well as write disturbs. The data encoding algorithm recodes the data on the fly based on selective inverting (even, odd, or full invert) to search for a minimum cost solution with aim at reducing write activities and extending the PCM lifetime. A hardware architecture for the present encoding/decoding algorithm is presented that requires only two bits storage overhead for coding, regardless of the width of data.
Kuwait University | Date: 2016-01-19
The drive system for wind turbine with contra-rotating generator includes various embodiments of belt drive pulley systems for a direct drive contra-rotating wind generator. The generator has a magnetic rotor and an armature mounted on a shaft configured to rotate in the opposite direction from the magnetic rotor. In some embodiments, a belt extends across two pairs of coaxially mounted idler pulleys between a pulley on the magnetic rotor shaft and a pulley on the armature shaft. In other embodiments, the pulleys on the magnetic rotor and armature shafts are double sheave pulleys, and a first belt extends across one or two coaxial pair(s) of idler pulleys between an inner and outer sheave, and a second belt extends across one or two coaxial pair(s) of idler pulleys between an inner and outer sheave. Either the magnetic rotor or the armature shaft or both are coupled to a wind turbine rotor.
Kuwait University | Date: 2016-08-02
The green tea extract composition for hepatic fibrosis includes green tea extract encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In order to treat a patient suffering from hepatic fibrosis, the patient is administered a therapeutically effective dose of the green tea extract composition for hepatic fibrosis. The treatment is preferably administered orally. In order to make the green tea extract treatment, chitosan and green tea extract (prepared from Camellia sinensis) are mixed in de-ionized water to form a first solution, which is then stirred. Pentasodium triphosphate is added to the first solution to foam a second solution, which is then sonicated to form nanoparticles of green tea extract encapsulated in chitosan. Preferably, the second solution is further stirred for approximately two hours following the sonication.
Kuwait University | Date: 2015-11-24
The multistage aeration system includes a water jet tank system having a closed water tank that holds a pool of water and seals in air above the pool of water. A nozzle in the top portion includes air bleeder passages to allow an ambient air to flow through the nozzle and into the closed water tank. A water flow meter and a water pump circulate water from the closed water tank to outside the tank through the water flow meter and then through the nozzle. The nozzle entrains air through the bleeder passages into the water as the water passes through the nozzle, and forms a jet spray into the pool of water. An air flow meter valve and a closed water tank air outlet pipe extend from the closed water tank and connect the water jet tank system to a diffused aeration tank system with a series tank system.
News Article | May 29, 2017
Global molecular diagnostics company Omixon, headquartered in Budapest with US offices in Cambridge, MA, announce today that Holotype HLA™ and other Omixon products will be featured in 12 poster presentations produced by Holotype customers at the annual meeting of the European Federation for Immunogenetics (EFI) in Mannheim, Germany. Additionally, Omixon’s Lunch Symposium on Wednesday will focus on Automated HLA Typing by NGS and feature three presentations from current Holotype HLA users from the EMEA region. Among the customer presentations the most common theme is the superiority of NGS compared with legacy methods, in which rare alleles created by rare crossing over events (P118, Thomas Binder et al.) or novel alleles (P119 & P123, Xavier Lafarge et al.) can be easily determined by Holotype HLA and remain a challenge for SBT. Another popular theme is the comparison of various NGS technologies (P115, Amalia Dinou et al. and Petra Neukirchen et al.) in which the strengths of Holotype HLA are showcased against those of other vendors. Additional examples of these themes are captured in a poster presented by Omixon’s Dr. Libor Kolesar (P110), who will focus on the “Super Powers” of NGS compared to legacy technologies and highlight unique capabilities of Holotype HLA. Omixon’s Lunch Symposium on May 31 will have three customer experience stories featuring Dr. Alexandre Walencik from the Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS), Nantes who will present their experience with Holotype HLA. “One year after, does NGS really change the world in a HLA laboratory?” Dr Walencik will their share good experiences, obstacles and their solutions with a focus on technical and organizational ways and means to encourage more labs adopt NGS for HLA such as Holotype HLA. Dr. Reem Ameen from Kuwait University will focus on describing the validation process for introducing Holotype HLA in clinical setting and her project to extend the known HLA haplotypes in several families of Kuwaiti descent. Dr. Ameen identified haplotypes that were not among the 200 most common HLA haplotypes in any of the 5 major US populations and included 199 (17%) unique alleles, 26 rare alleles, 6 very rare alleles and 2 novels. Kuwaiti individuals carry unique HLA haplotypes that are not shared by any of the majority of subjects historically reported to the US National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) registry - a fascinating population with tremendous potential for ongoing HLA research. Dr. Mette Christiansen from the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark will share their experiences on Automation of the Holotype HLA on the Beckman Biomek 4000. NGS has ushered in an era of increased capacity for HLA genotyping in terms of pooling more loci and processing larger numbers of samples thus placing ever more importance on repeatability and reproducibility. Handling of multiple samples at multiple loci simultaneously and eventually combining these into a single tube requires tightly controlled procedures, which may be achieved by automation. She will focus on the obstacles encountered and the benefits achieved in the automation process. Marcello Scala, Director of Sales, EMEA at Omixon says, “The explosion in labs adopting Holotype HLA throughout Europe and Middle East has been truly astonishing. Even more impressive is the affection customers have for the technology due to its unrivaled ability to resolve the genotypes of complex samples for the benefit of patients and the transplant community as a whole.” Omixon at EFI 2017 May 30 - June 02 | Omixon will be exhibiting at Booth #18 throughout the conference May 30, 9.30am - 11am | Resolving Laboratory NGS Assay Challenges with HLA Twin May 30, 11.30am-1pm | Resolving Complex Cases of NGS-based HLA Typing with HLA Twin May 31, 1.30pm-2.30pm | High-throughput Automation of Holotype HLA in Clinical Routine Omixon featured in posters P108 | E. Bauer et al. (2017) - Full-length sequencing of a novel MICA allele variant P110 | L. Kolesar et al. (2017) - Superpowers of NGS P111 | J. Diegel et al. (2017) - HLA-E genotyping – the sooner the better P115 | A. Dinou et al. (2017) - Evaluation of a commercially available HLA typing kit for NGS P117 | T. Binder et al. (2017) - Complete human leukocyte antigen gene sequence determination combining long range polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing P118 |T. Binder et al. (2017) - Whole gene sequence determination of a rare human leukocyte antigen DRB1 allele by combining long range polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing. P119 | X. Lafarge et al. (2017) - Exon phasing permits identification of new alleles by NGS not detectable by Sanger sequence-based typing P121 | P. Neukirchen et al. (2017) - NGS based HLA typing: comparison of four protocols and corresponding software P123 | X. Lafarge et al. (2017) Validation and routine setting of HLA typing by Next Generation Sequencing using the HOLOTYPE HLA (OMIXON) kits : a multicentric experience P127 | A. Hansen et al. (2017) - Implementing ABO genotyping into HLA sequencing workflow P129 | L. Krammes et al. (2017) - What’s new genotyping KIR2DL5? P145 | M. Dorak et al. (2017) - HLA-A, -B, -C typing by next generation sequencing in a sample of Turkish population About Omixon Omixon is a global molecular diagnostics company, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary, with US offices in Cambridge, MA that commercializes disruptive technologies for clinical and research laboratories. Omixon’s flagship product, Holotype HLA™, is the world’s leading NGS-based HLA genotyping product that delivers the most accurate high-resolution HLA genotyping available, and is used in more than 35 hospitals worldwide. Omixon’s research software, HLA Explore™ analyzes data from any sequencing technology and determines HLA genotypes from Whole Exome/Genome Sequencing experiments. Omixon maintains an active grant-funded research program with a product pipeline focused on pre- and post-transplantation, and HLA genotyping applications beyond transplantation.
Abdeslam M.,Kuwait University
Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Fever is a major component of the host's defense against infection. Inadequate febrile response can predispose an individual to the deleterious effects of infection. Neonatal exposure to infectious agents such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permanently dampens the adult febrile response. Whether prenatal immune challenge alters febrile response during adulthood is still not known. In the present study, LPS (100 μg/kg, i.p.) or pyrogen-free saline was administered to pregnant rats on either gestation day (GD) 12, 15 or 19 and the febrile response of their respective adult offspring was monitored. During adulthood (>70 days old), the rats born to LPS-injected dams on GD15 displayed a significantly attenuated febrile response to LPS (50 μg/kg, i.p.) compared to their control counterparts born to dams given saline on GD15. Immune challenge during either early (GD12) or late (GD19) pregnancy did not have a significant impact on fever in the adult offspring. Immune challenge on GD15, but not on GD12 or 19, heightened the plasma corticosterone response to a subsequent LPS injection to the adult offspring but did not have a significant effect on their basal plasma corticosterone levels. Finally, LPS-induced COX-2 in the fever-controlling regions of the hypothalamus was significantly reduced in the adult rats born to dams given LPS on GD15 compared to their counterparts born to dams given saline on GD15. Such COX-2 reduction was not observed in the adult offspring born to dams given LPS on either GD12 or 19. Taken together, these data suggest that a single immune challenge during a critical window of pregnancy alters the neuroimmune response in adult offspring. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Redzic Z.,Kuwait University
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS | Year: 2011
Efficient processing of information by the central nervous system (CNS) represents an important evolutionary advantage. Thus, homeostatic mechanisms have developed that provide appropriate circumstances for neuronal signaling, including a highly controlled and stable microenvironment. To provide such a milieu for neurons, extracellular fluids of the CNS are separated from the changeable environment of blood at three major interfaces: at the brain capillaries by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is localized at the level of the endothelial cells and separates brain interstitial fluid (ISF) from blood; at the epithelial layer of four choroid plexuses, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), which separates CSF from the CP ISF, and at the arachnoid barrier. The two barriers that represent the largest interface between blood and brain extracellular fluids, the BBB and the BCSFB, prevent the free paracellular diffusion of polar molecules by complex morphological features, including tight junctions (TJs) that interconnect the endothelial and epithelial cells, respectively. The first part of this review focuses on the molecular biology of TJs and adherens junctions in the brain capillary endothelial cells and in the CP epithelial cells. However, normal function of the CNS depends on a constant supply of essential molecules, like glucose and amino acids from the blood, exchange of electrolytes between brain extracellular fluids and blood, as well as on efficient removal of metabolic waste products and excess neurotransmitters from the brain ISF. Therefore, a number of specific transport proteins are expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells and CP epithelial cells that provide transport of nutrients and ions into the CNS and removal of waste products and ions from the CSF. The second part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of various solute carrier (SLC) transport proteins at those two barriers and underlines differences in their expression between the two barriers. Also, many blood-borne molecules and xenobiotics can diffuse into brain ISF and then into neuronal membranes due to their physicochemical properties. Entry of these compounds could be detrimental for neural transmission and signalling. Thus, BBB and BCSFB express transport proteins that actively restrict entry of lipophilic and amphipathic substances from blood and/or remove those molecules from the brain extracellular fluids. The third part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters and those SLC transporters that are involved in efflux transport of xenobiotics, their expression at the BBB and BCSFB and differences in expression in the two major blood-brain interfaces. In addition, transport and diffusion of ions by the BBB and CP epithelium are involved in the formation of fluid, the ISF and CSF, respectively, so the last part of this review discusses molecular biology of ion transporters/exchangers and ion channels in the brain endothelial and CP epithelial cells. © 2011 Redzic; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Mouihate A.,Kuwait University
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Experimental and epidemiological data show that the severity and the duration of brain inflammation are attenuated in females compared to males. This attenuated brain inflammation is ascribed to 17β-estradiol. However, several studies suggest that 17β-estradiol is also endowed with proinflammatory properties. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of hormonal replacement therapies on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation and its consequent effect on newly born neurons. Bilaterally ovariectomized rats received intrastriatal injection of LPS (250 ng/μl) and were subsequently given daily subcutaneous injections of either vehicle, 17β-estradiol (25 μg/kg) or 17β-estradiol and progesterone (5 mg/kg). Microglial activation and newly born neurons in the rostral migratory stream were monitored using double immunofluorescence. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling pathway and its target inflammatory proteins were assessed by either western blot [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. LPS-induced activation of microglia, promoted NFκB signaling pathway and enhanced the production of proinflammatory proteins (TNF-α and COX-2). These proinflammatory responses were not attenuated by 17β-estradiol injection. Supplementation of 17β-estradiol with progesterone significantly dampened these proinflammatory processes. Interestingly, LPS-induced brain inflammation dampened the number of newly born neurons in the rostral migratory stream. Administration of combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone resulted in a significantly higher number of newly born neurons when compared to those seen in rats given either vehicle or 17β-estradiol alone. These data strongly suggest that combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone, and not 17β-estradiol alone, rescues neurogenesis from the deleterious effect of brain inflammation likely via the inhibition of the signaling pathways leading to the activation of proinflammatory genes. © 2014 Mouihate.
Abraham A.,Kuwait University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. "Conceptual expansion" refers to the ability to widen one's conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while "overcoming knowledge constraints" refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition. © 2014 Abraham.
Kuwait University | Date: 2015-05-07
The system and method for determining the feedback capacity of information distributed in a complex network determines feedback capacity as information is received and diffused throughout the network. Traditionally, real networks, such as computer networks, were used in determining network feedback. However, current complex networks typically incorporate graphing models for network analysis. The system and method provide a process to determine the quality of a complex network with respect to feedback capacity, such as can be determined by a corresponding Belief Propagation algorithm and a corresponding entropy equation. The system and method can also determine the cyclic entropy per penetration in a to complex network, the depth penetration for nodes in the complex network and a plurality of cycle counts per node in the complex network based on a source node.