Darwish M.A.,Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of science
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2010
Kuwait has limited natural water resources and the non-conventional source of desalted seawater is used to satisfy the demand for potable water. Co-generation power-desalting plants (CPDP) are used to produce both electric power and desalted water, with steam extracted from steam turbines to supply desalting units, usually multi-stage flash (MSF) desalting units, with its thermal energy requirements. The MSF system is known for its high rate of energy consumption. The Ministry of electricity and water (MEW) was forced to install gas turbines (GT) to satisfy the increase in the peak load and to carry a good share of the base load. This resulted in a shortage in the availability of steam turbines for future use of the MSF units. Both alternative energy sources (other than steam extracted from turbines) and more energy-efficient desalting systems are needed to meet the rising demands for water and electricity. This paper discusses the feasibility of using reliable and commercially available fuel cells (FC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), known as ONSI P25, to operate seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalting system for small communities in Kuwait. The PAFC is known by having documented performance and is operated by natural gas. The SWRO is the most efficient desalting system. The technical merits and the economic benefits involved in combining the PAFC with the SWRO are outlined. © 2010 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source
Afgan N.H.,University of Lisbon |
Darwish M.,Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of science
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011
The complexity expressed through the definition of sustainability notion and its application is a triple vision: preservation of energy resources and protection of environment, achievement of social values and justice within the present and for future generations, and as well as sustainable economic development. In order to reach this vision the multi-criteria assessment of water and energy systems is needed. Scarcity of water and energy resources implies the need for a new future strategy in the development of water and energy technologies. In particular the water desalination technology is important for regions with high shortage in natural water resources. Even in countries with abundant energy resources there is a need for evaluation of its use for the water production. Water desalination and power technologies have been closely related in the development of future energy strategy. Primary goal in this development was the economic validation of potential technologies. With new technologies in this field, it becomes of great interest to introduce multi-criteria evaluation in the assessment of different approaches. This implies the need to take into a consideration the environment, technological and social aspect of water and energy technologies. Demonstration of the multi-criteria evaluation of cogeneration electric power and desalting water plants is presented for the Kuwait case with attention to strategy development for the period 2010-2015. It is imminent to the development of new water and energy technologies to take into consideration different concepts of cogeneration systems. In this respect, we will focus the attention in this analysis to the following combined cycle's options: electricity and water production "as usual"; electricity and water production by natural gas; electricity and water production by nuclear energy; electricity and water production by solar energy. For each of these options different desalination technology is considered, including: multi stage flash (MSF), multi effect distillation (MED), and reverse osmosis (RO) desalting systems. The multi-criteria assessment method, based on the economic, environmental, technological and social criteria with respective indicators, is used in the evaluation of water and energy production options. It will comprise cases with economic, environmental, technological and social indicator priorities in comparison with others indicators. This aim of the analysis is to assist the decision makers in selecting appropriate option. © 2011 Desalination Publications. Source
Darwish M.A.,Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of science |
Darwish A.,American University in Cairo |
Darwish A.,University of Cincinnati
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011
Kuwait was the first country in the world to adopt desalting water as the main source of fresh water in the world. It was also the first to use the multi stage flash MSF desalting system in its present design in 1960. Many questions are raised about the sustainability of using seawater desalination as a main source of fresh water which is followed by most of the Arab Gulf countries. In other words, are the three conditions of sustainability satisfied? These conditions are: 1) The exploitation rate of ground water (the supplementary natural water source to the desalted water as potable water source) does not exceed the rate of their re-generation; 2) The consumption rate of non-renewable fossil fuel used in desalting does not exceed the developing rate of sustainable substitutes; 3) The pollutants emission (to air and sea) rates do not exceed the environment capacity to absorb, or render them harmless. In Kuwait, the replenishment rate of ground water is about 20 m3/d while its extraction exceeds 550 m3/d. The fuel oil resource is finite, and non-renewable. It represents the main income to the country. Its local consumption is continuously increasing to the extent that the total production can locally consumed within 40 years. For the time being, no alternative fuel energy source is seriously considered. Although the fossil fuels (as energy resource) required for desalting water cannot be completely sustainable, the efficient use of this fuel and desalted water can prolong the availability of these resources, making them more sustainable. The United Nations UN defined different environmentally sound technologies EST which decrease the environmental pollution, use the available resources efficiently to elongate its sustainability, and reclaim the waste as much as possible. This opens the way for new recovered resources and saves the environment. In trying to satisfy the staggering needs of desalted seawater in the Arab Gulf countries, some points were overlooked and now there is a need for re-consideration to make adoption of desalted water source more sustainable. These points include: over-utilization of ground water resources, over consumption of energy needed to produce potable water, negative impact of desalting seawater on the environment, and looking for alternative source of water. This paper discusses these points and discusses possible solutions. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO-2009-1.1 | Award Amount: 2.62M | Year: 2010
INCONET-GCC aims to develop and support the bi-regional dialogue by bringing together policymakers and stakeholders of the GCC and EU Member States. It aims to create a dialogue and action platform to identify common interests in research areas, set up S&T priorities, support capacity building activities, and enhance the interaction between different cooperation instruments of the EC and EU Member States. It will promote actions in order to monitor, develop, promote and contribute to the creation of synergies among the various S&T cooperation programmes between the GCC and the EU Member States, and foster the participation of the GCC in the FP7, CIP, etc. An observatory of EU-GCC cooperation in S&T will be created in the project framework. The main outputs of INCONET-GCC will be INCONET-GCC open networking platform for policy dialogue and the future S&T, Contribution of INCONET-GCC to the EU Strategic Framework for International Cooperation is S&T, Collaborative plan in S&T policy advisory contributing to the decisions of the GCC-EU Joint Council, INCONET-GCC White Paper, Integration of GCC NCPs with EU NCP network, INCONET-GCC roadmap and sustainability report, Organisation of International Conference and dissemination events. INCONET-GCC will be achieved through a high quality, recognized value and expertise consortium. Consortium roles and expertise are complementary and allows for a balanced effort allocation across its the different objectives. Partners coming from distinguished institutions in EU and GCC region and includes representatives of all countries of the Arabian Peninsula, which politically includes the 6 GCC states and Yemen, which repeatedly seeks to join the GCC six-country block. The Ministry of Education (Egypt) and the Ministry of Higher Education (Morocco) are MIRA partners that will act as the liaison with MIRA project and their cultural background is close to those of GCC region. The consortium is flexible and easily manageable.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO.2013-1.1 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2014
INCONET-GCC2s overall goal is to support the institutional bi-regional policy dialogue in Science, Technology and Innovation, to strengthen the bi-regional cooperation between research and innovation actors, especially in the context of the upcoming Horizon 2020 programme and finally to monitor progress in the bi-regional STI cooperation. INCONET-GCC2 builds on the results of previous cooperation activities with the Arab Gulf Countries (INCONET-GCC 1st phase, www.icnonet-gcc.eu) while it focuses on selected societal challenges of mutual interest as identified during the previous collaboration. INCONET-GCC2 explores now to achieve win-win across national, multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral approaches can be spurred in response to these issues while also realising and underpinning new pathbreaking kinds of capacity-building and organising clustering activities around the selected research priorities. Specifically: (1) Implement a series of analyses feeding the policy dialogue and increasing its efficiency, monitoring INCONET-GCC2s own activities, with particular emphasis on their sustainability, and implementing coherent dissemination activities in order to increase its visibility and impact; (2) Built of best practices towards the future in order to promote joint research though clustering activities within the selected societal challenges and organise thematic workshops in Health, Energy, Innovation and Security and ICT, Food towards EU-GCC Joint Call for proposals; (3) Enhance capacity building through the delivery of the facilitation of researcher mobility, summer schools, the support of the NCPs and their expansion in order to cover the selected societal challenges and the organisation of information days and brokerage events in all Arab Gulf countries; (4) Roadmap future research activities and provide recommendations to the EC and the national regulatory and funding authorities; (5)Raise awareness and disseminate information.