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Al-Sarawi H.A.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | Al-Sarawi H.A.,Drake University | Jha A.N.,Drake University | Al-Sarawi M.A.,Kuwait University | Lyons B.P.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

The rapid expansion of industry, along with previous pollution events linked to conflicts in the region, have led to a variety of contaminants being inadvertently or deliberately discharged into Kuwait's marine environment. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals, from the petrochemical industry, and contaminated brine from the region's desalination industries. The present paper has reviewed over 60 studies that have reported the levels of contaminants, including PAHs, metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in seawater, sediment and representative marine organisms. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that while Kuwait's marine environment has been subjected to a wide array of pollution events, the actual levels of contamination remains relatively low. However, sediment contamination hotspots associated with point sources of industrial contamination, such as originating from the Shuaiba industrial area, do exist at a number of locations around the coast. © 2015. Source

Smith A.J.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | McGowan T.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Devlin M.J.,James Cook University | Massoud M.S.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | And 4 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Kuwait is a country with low rainfall and highly concentrated industrial and domestic effluents entering its coastal waters. These can be both treated and untreated. In this study we sampled a series of coastal and open-sea sites and used a variety of analyses to identify those sites requiring the most attention. We used a high throughput GC-MS screen to look for over 1000 chemicals in the samples. Estrogen and androgen screens assessed the potential to disrupt endocrine activity. An oyster embryo development screen was used to assess biological effect potential.The chemical screen identified sites which had high numbers of identified industrial and domestic chemicals. The oyster screen showed that these sites had also caused high levels of developmental abnormalities with 100% of embryos affected at some sites. The yeast screen showed that estrogenic chemicals were present in outfalls at 2-3. ng/l E2 equivalent, and detectable even in some open water sites. © 2015. Source

Lyons B.P.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Barber J.L.,CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory | Rumney H.S.,CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory | Bolam T.P.C.,CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

A geographically extensive baseline survey of sediment contamination was undertaken at twenty nine locations around Kuwait. Samples were assessed in relation to a wide range of industrial pollutants, including metals, PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs. The data generated indicated that levels of pollutants were generally low and below commonly applied sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). However, naturally high background concentrations of certain metals present in sediment from the region may prohibit the direct assessment against some of the routinely applied SQGs. Hot spots of contamination were identified for PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs, that were mainly associated with the Shuaiba Industrial Area, located south of the city, and known to contain a diverse mix of both light and heavy industry. © 2015. Source

Lyons B.P.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Devlin M.J.,James Cook University | Abdul Hamid S.A.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | Al-Otiabi A.F.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | And 9 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results indicated that bacterial counts regularly breach regional water quality guidelines. Sediments collected from a total of 29 sites contained detectable levels of coprostanol with values ranging from 29 to 2420ngg-1 (dry weight). Hot spots based on faecal sterol sediment contamination were identified in Doha Bay and Sulaibikhat Bay, which are both smaller embayments of Kuwait Bay. The ratio of epicoprostanol/coprostanol indicates that a proportion of the contamination was from raw or partially treated sewage. Sewage pollution in these areas are thought to result from illegal connections and discharges from storm drains, such as that sited at Al-Ghazali. © 2015. Source

Stentiford G.D.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Massoud M.S.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | Al-Mudhhi S.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | Al-Sarawi M.A.,Kuwait Environment Public Authority | And 3 more authors.
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2014

The marine environment in Kuwait is dominated by Kuwait Bay, a shallow, depositional habitat vital for the breeding and propagation of marine organisms. The bay receives effluent inputs from industrial centres, ports, sewage outflows along with discharges from power and desalination plants. The major classes of pollutant discharged into the bay include petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, nutrients, cooling water and hyper-saline water. Further, the bay has been historically impacted by a deliberate release of oil and contamination with ordnance and shipwrecks during the 1991 Gulf war. With an aim to establish an integrated pollution effects monitoring programme in Kuwait, this paper describes the application of a quality assured approach to conduct a histopathology baseline survey in oriental sole (Synaptura orientalis) and the large-toothed flounder (Pseudorhombus arsius), which are two potential sentinel flatfish species present in the Arabian Gulf. Liver and gonadal histopathology revealed a range of pathologies similar to those previously observed in European and American pollution effects surveys that utilise flatfish (including pathology markers indicative of possible carcinogenesis and endocrine disruption). Further, we extended these studies to invertebrates (Jinga prawn, Metapenaeus affinis and the grooved tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus) found within the Arabian Gulf. Such baseline data is essential before attempts are made to develop integrated monitoring programmes that aim to assess the health of fish and shellfish in relation to chemical contamination. © 2014. Source

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