Kuwait City, Kuwait
Kuwait City, Kuwait

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Godward S.,University of Cambridge | Williams D.,University of Cambridge | Siddique I.,Kuwait University | Al-Saleh K.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2010

The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth ± three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Adriana Z.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center | Bahar S.A.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2012

The occurrence of a four-way Philadelphia chromosome translocation is a very rare event in myeloid malignancies, and the phenotypic consequences of such rearrangements remain to be investigated. We describe a case of a chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient with a complex four-way t(9;22;7,1) translocation who received multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. As evaluation of prognostic features in a limited number of patients with four-way Philadelphia rearrangements at present yields controversial results, our case may add further information on the prognostic impact of such abnormalities in CML patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, and may help delineate a sub-group of patients requiring different therapeutic approaches. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Hematology.

Zamecnikova A.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
Expert Review of Hematology | Year: 2010

Many biological and clinical features of chronic myeloid leukemia make it as a paradigm of rational drug design in human cancer. Chronic myeloid leukemia was the first malignancy to be linked to a clear genetic anomaly, the Philadelphia chromosome and, at present, it is probably the best understood of all human malignancies. Studies of the disease pathology revealed that the molecular consequence of the Philadelphia translocation is a BCR-ABL chimeric gene, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase with wholesale range of biological activities. Animal models have validated the direct role of the BCR-ABL protein in malignant transformation and subsequent research confirmed that its enhanced tyrosine kinase activity is essential and sufficient for the leukemogenesis. The very existence of a single genetic abnormality, presented in essentially all patients with the disease, made it an effective target for molecularly designed therapeutic approaches for the disease. The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, designed specifically to inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein, represents one of the major innovations in cancer therapy and may serve as a model for, how discoveries of disease pathogenesis may be translated into the development of successful targeted therapies in cancer medicine. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Mohammed E.M.A.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system, causing the appearance of focal areas of inflammation and demyelination. A detailed study of MS would offer a better understanding of the causes of increased number of MS cases in the Arab Gulf countries. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to extract data regarding MS in general and MS in Arabian Gulf countries in specific. Only peer-reviewed, full-text articles published in English were included. Results: Data have shown a noticeable increase in cases of MS in the Arab Gulf countries. Although the underlying causes still remain elusive, many factors have been proposed to influence MS. This review will discuss the factors influencing MS, correlate their effects with disease pathology, their interaction in the context of disease development, and try to explain the increased number of MS in Arabian Gulf countries. Conclusion: Understanding MS development could open new doors for the treatment of MS, as well as initiate novel target therapies for citizens of Arab Gulf countries. © 2016 The Author.

Usmani S.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Sinus tarsi syndrome is a pain in the lateral side of the hind foot that is responsive to injection of local anesthetic agents. We report a case of a 42-year-old man who presented with pain over the lateral aspect of the right foot. Laboratory investigations and x-ray were normal. Bone scintigraphy showed hyperemia and increase tracer uptake in right hind foot. SPECT-CT localizes this uptake at the inferior aspect of the talus and superior aspects of the calcaneus. Diagnosis of sinus tarsi syndrome was made on the basis of history, clinical examination, and bone scintigraphy findings. Local conservative therapy was initiated. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mittal R.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
The Gulf journal of oncology | Year: 2012

Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare tumors of childhood. The majority of these tumors is hormone-producing and cause virilization and Cushing syndrome or feminization. The authors describe 6 cases of adrenal cortical tumors treated at the Kuwait Cancer Center which were presented over a period of 20 years (1989-2009). The mean age was 5.5 years (range 15 months - 12 years). All had signs of virilization. One child had hypertension, while 2 had a metastatic disease at presentation. The diagnosis was made by clinical signs and symptoms, high levels of relevant adrenal hormones and imaging. Two children were not fit for surgery; one was too sick for any treatment and died shortly after diagnosis, while the other died after receiving one cycle of palliative chemotherapy. Four patients underwent complete surgical resection and achieved complete remission, three of whom later had recurrence (distant in one and local in two patients) and succumbed due to progressive disease. Mitotane was used in two children. Only one patient is currently surviving and well nearly 13 years after her surgery. In our series, the long-term outcome of children with adrenocortical tumors was very poor. Virilization is an important clue to the diagnosis of ACT. Early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are important for survival. Metastasis at presentation or as recurrence carries very dismal prognosis.

Samir S.M.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
The Gulf journal of oncology | Year: 2011

Medullary carcinomas of the breast account for fewer than 7% of all invasive breast cancers. Some investigators include medullary carcinomas in the favourable histologic subtype, despite its aggressive histologic appearance. However, others fail to confirm its favourable prognosis. This was a retrospective analysis of sixty-one (61) cases of breast cancer cases diagnosed with Medullary Carcinoma, presenting to the Kuwait Cancer Control Center between 1995 and 2005. Median survival time was 122 months and the seven-year disease free survival was 82%. Overall survival rate was not assessed as no cases died during the study period. No cases were metastatic from the start and only eight cases developed metastases, local recurrence or contralateral breast primary. 68.8% of the cases were Stage I or IIA (i.e. no lymph node affection). There is no overt favourable prognosis of medullary carcinoma when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma. Prognosis is more related to stage than histologic subtyping. The majority of cases were negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status and node negative.

Elbasmi A.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
The Gulf journal of oncology | Year: 2010

Cancer registry data obtained from the Kuwait Cancer Registry at Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) of Ministry of Health, State of Kuwait. The data covers the years 1974 to 2007. was to estimate the magnitude of the cancer problem in Kuwait over the period 1974-2007. Age-adjusted incidence rates (ASR) with standard error (er) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of age-standardized rates were estimated. Statistical significance was assessed by examining the standardized rate ratio (SRR). It was noted that by following the Cancer registry data there was a trend of increase in adjusted rates among both males and females. Looking into specific cancers it was noticed that comparing the ASR of colorectal cancer among Kuwaiti males, it increased by about 5 folds over the last 33 years and ranked the 1st most frequent site on the years 2003-2007. Prostate cancer incidence increased by 3 folds (14.5 cases /100,000 populations) and ranked the 4th most frequent site among Kuwaiti males. The incidence of Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and leukemia had increased by 1.5 to 2 folds over the same time period. The rise of lung cancer incidence declined to similar rates compared to that observed in the early 70s and 80s. For Kuwaiti females breast cancer had the highest incidence among Kuwaiti population (15 cases /100,000 populations), it increased by 3 folds (50 cases /100,000 populations) over the last 33 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased by about 4 folds; (13 cases /100,000 populations). NHL and leukemia increased by 2-2.5 folds over the same studied duration. Meanwhile Thyroid cancer increased by one fold. Some of the differences in cancer rates over the last 33 years are likely to be attributable to the variation in exposure to specific etiologic factors that are caused by differences in lifestyle and habits, such as dietary, physical activity and obesity. Further research with a view to understanding these changes in cancer incidence is warranted. The need for an interventional prevention programs that vigorously involve, diet, anti-smoking and physical activity among both sexes.

Al-Saleh K.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
The Gulf journal of oncology | Year: 2012

Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are uncommon exuberant growths of cells derived from the external root sheath. They tend to occur in older women, with a predilection for the scalp. Wide local excision has been the standard treatment. Recent reports have described a rare malignant variant with an aggressive clinical course and a propensity for nodal and distant metastases which, therefore, merits aggressive treatment.

El-Basmy A.,Cancer Epidemiology and Registration Unit | Al-Mohannadi S.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center | Al-Awadi A.,Kuwait Cancer Control Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death in Kuwaiti people after cardiovascular diseases. This study is the first in the country to describe epidemiological measures related to cancer in this population. Methods: Data obtained from the Kuwait cancer registry included all Kuwaiti patients between years 2000-2009. Analyses were conducted using age-specific rates, the age-standardization-direct method, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), cumulative risk by the age of 74 years, limited-duration prevalence, mortality and forecasting to year 2029. Results: It was noted that the commonest cancer sites were colorectal with an age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of 16.1/100,000 in males and breast (49.4/100,000) in the female population. The trend of cancer incidence (1974-2009) showed no statistically significant change. First causes of death due to cancer were female breast 8(6.4-9.6)/100,000 and lung (males) 8.1/100,000 (6.6-10.0). The risk of developing cancer by the age of 74 was 13.4% (1/8) and 14.3% (1/7) in males and females respectively, and the risk of dying from cancer in the same age group was 1/17 and 1/23. By the end of 2009, prevalent cases represented 0.52% of the Kuwaiti population. In the year 2029, the total number of cancer cases is expected to reach 1200 cases compared to 889 cases in 2009. Conclusions and recommendations: The most common cancers in Kuwait (breast, colorectal and lung) are largely preventable. Prompt and effective interventional prevention programs that vigorously involve diet, anti-smoking and physical activity for both sexes are urgently required.

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