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Kutztown, PA, United States

Kutztown University of Pennsylvania , is an American public university located in rural Kutztown, Pennsylvania and is one of fourteen schools that comprise the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education and is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, Pennsylvania Department of Education, NCATE, NLN, CSWE, NASM, and NASAD.First established in 1866, Kutztown University began as the Keystone Normal School based out of the presently-named Old Main Building and specializing in teacher education; in 1928 its name was changed to Kutztown State Teachers College. Eventually, the school expanded its programs outside of education to be christened Kutztown State College in 1960 and finally Kutztown University of Pennsylvania in 1983.Between four undergraduate colleges and graduate studies, Kutztown University now offers programs in the liberal arts and science, the visual and performing arts, business, education, and certain graduate studies. Eight intercollegiate men's sports and thirteen women's sports compete within the NCAA Division II and the Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference .Recent years have seen substantial growth in the size of the university. The Academic Forum building, completed in 2007; the renovation and expansion of Sharadin Arts Building, completed in 2008, and Schaeffer Auditorium, completed in 2013; and the construction Dixon Hall, opened in 2008, mark major expansion projects recently undertaken by the university.Kutztown University is a census-designated place in Maxatawny Township just outside of the borough of Kutztown and makes up the main population of the university. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,918 residents. Wikipedia.

Walters G.D.,Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Criminal Justice and Behavior

The purpose of this study was to determine whether proactive criminal thinking mediated the relationship between peer delinquency and future serious offending better than peer delinquency mediated the relationship between proactive criminal thinking and future serious offending. Participants in this study were 1,027 ten- to eighteen-year-old British youth (458 boys, 569 girls) from the four-wave Offending, Crime and Justice Survey (OCJS). Prior delinquency was controlled by confining the sample to individuals who denied pre-existing delinquency involvement. In line with the main hypothesis, the peer delinquency → proactive criminal thinking → serious offending path achieved a significantly stronger effect than the proactive criminal thinking → peer delinquency → serious offending path. These findings provide support for a synthesis of social learning and criminal thinking theories in which peer delinquency helps shape proactive criminal thinking, and proactive criminal thinking effectively mediates the relationship between peer delinquency and serious offending. © 2015, International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology. Source

Walters G.D.,Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Law and Human Behavior

The purpose of this study was to determine (a) which of 2 dimensions of criminal thinking (proactive and/or reactive) correlates with prior substance abuse; (b) whether criminal thinking mediates the relationship between prior substance abuse and recidivism; (c) if a direct relationship exists between specific drugs of abuse and specific criminal thinking styles. First, the reconstructed Proactive (Prc) and Reactive (Rrc) Criminal Thinking scores from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) were correlated with a dichotomous measure of prior substance abuse and a continuous measure of the number of substances abused in a sample of 2877 male federal prisoners (age: M = 34.96, SD = 9.89, range = 18-84; race: 63.6% Black, 17.3% White, 17.6% Hispanic, 1.4% other). The results indicated that only the Rrc score correlated significantly with prior substance abuse when the effect of the alternative measure (Prc in the case of Rrc and Rrc in the case of the Prc) was controlled through partial correlations. Second, reactive criminal thinking was found to mediate the relationship between a history of prior substance abuse and subsequent recidivism in a subsample of 1101 inmates who were released from prison during a 1- to 76-month follow-up. Third, both specific (alcohol with cutoff; marijuana with cognitive indolence) and global (heroin, cocaine, and amphetamine with cutoff, cognitive indolence, and discontinuity) drug-criminal thinking correlations were obtained. These results suggest that reactive criminal thinking plays a potentially important role in the drug-crime relationship. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Source

Walters G.D.,Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Legal and Criminological Psychology

Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate whether two features of antisocial cognition, short-term goals, and physically hedonistic values mediate the past-crime-future-crime relationship. Methods. Data from 395 members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C) were used to test this hypothesis. A path analysis was performed, with past crime serving as the independent (predictor) variable, future crime serving as the dependent (outcome) variable, and short-term goals and physically hedonistic values serving as mediating variables. Results. The results of a structured equation modelling path analysis revealed a significant mediating effect for hedonistic values but not for short-term goals, when both variables were included in the same analysis. A causal mediation analysis was then conducted on the past crime → physically hedonistic values → future crime relationship, the results of which disclosed the presence of a partially mediated effect of physically hedonistic values on the past-crime-future-crime relationship after controlling for age, race, gender, and low self-control. When short-term goals were analysed separately, they also partially mediated the past-crime-future-crime relationship, although the effect was weaker than when physically hedonistic values served as the mediator. Conclusions. Hedonistic values and, to a lesser extent, short-term goals appear to mediate crime continuity, perhaps by establishing a state of psychological inertia, whereby certain psychological processes help maintain negative behavioural patterns like crime. © 2013 The British Psychological Society. Source

Schnell S.M.,Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Agriculture and Human Values

The idea of "food miles," the distance that food has to be shipped, has entered into debates in both popular and academic circles about local eating. An oft-cited figure claims that the "average item" of food travels 1,500 miles before it reaches your plate. The source of this figure is almost never given, however, and indeed, it is a figure with surprisingly little grounding in objective research. In this study, I track the evolution of this figure, and the ways that scholars and popular writers have rhetorically employed it. I then explore the ongoing debates over food miles and local food, debates that often oversimplify the idea of local eating to a caricature. I then examine a series of in-depth interviews with community-supported agriculture members and farmers in order to bring complexity back to discussions of local food consumers. I argue that the overwhelming focus on "food miles" among scholars threatens to eclipse the multitude of other values and meanings contained in the word "local" that underlie people's decisions to "eat locally," foremost among them, a desire to reintegrate food production and consumption within the context of place. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

The purpose of this study was to determine whether comorbid adolescent criminal and substance involvement (ACSI) was more predictive of adult criminal/substance involvement than adolescent criminal or substance involvement alone, and identify potential precursors and mediators of this relationship. Using data from 6502 members of the four-wave National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), it was found that ACSI at Wave 2 (ages 13–20) predicted adult criminal and substance involvement at Waves 3 (ages 18–26) and 4 (ages 24–32). In addition, antisocial cognition at Wave 3 partially mediated the relationship between ACSI at Wave 2 and criminal/substance involvement at Wave 4 and Wave 1 school problems correlated with the independent, dependent, and mediating variables. Theoretical and practical implications of this study include the role of early school problems in the development of ACSI and the significance of antisocial thinking in maintaining this involvement. © 2014 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Source

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