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Schott R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG
AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Over the last decades, the blast furnace process has been the most important process for producing crude iron. A decisive measure in improving cost effectiveness by reducing the blast furnace coke rate was the injection of substitute fuels like pulverized coal, oil, or natural gas into the raceway of the blast furnace. After the second oil crisis during the early 1980s, the installation of pulverized coal injection plants became dominant. At that time, 28 years ago, the Küttner company started to build customized grinding and drying (GAD) and pulverized coal injection (PCI) plants. To meet market demands over a longer period it was crucial to develop and refine your own technologies continuously. In this respect, Küttner has developed and refined its own coal grinding and drying, and dense phase injection technology for blast furnaces. This paper will focus primarily on important steps of continuous improvements in pulverized coal injection technology. These steps include the reduction of transport and injection gas to a minimum, the implementation of a fast and accurate injection rate control system, and long distance dense phase conveying. Additionally, with the development of the Oxycoal+ and coal preheating technology, a further increase of the pulverized coal injection rate with simultaneous decrease of coke rate was achieved. By reference to industrial examples, customized GAD and PCI plants will be presented. Finally, economical aspects of using PCI with respect to other substitute fuels like natural gas will be discussed.


Lemperle M.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Rachner H.-J.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Jennes R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG
AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

The OxyCup® plant at TISCO, Taiyuan, China, started operation as scheduled in July 2011. The plant was designed to process 600,000 t/yr of selfreducing bricks made from dust and sludge residues together with approximately 75,000 t/yr of pit scrap or skulls. The plant comprises a brick fabrication with material handling, mixing tower and curing hall and processes residues from carbon steel production as well as from stainless steel production in two different lines. Two individual OxyCup® shaft furnace lines are used to convert the bricks and skulls to liquid hot metal and iron chromium and nickel alloy respectively and slag. The furnace top gases are wet de-dusted and used for both hot blast heating and power generation in an onsite power plant. In order to increase the availability up to 8000 h/yr a third OxyCup® shaft is installed to replace one of the other two shafts during refractory repair. The paper will give first information about the successful start-up and results with respect to operating figures gained so far.


Husken R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Fechner R.,Kuttner LLC
Iron and Steel Technology | Year: 2011

Many steelmakers are faced with very high [%P] contents in the hot metal coming from blast furnaces. Combined blowing technology is based on top-blown oxygen and inert gas injection through the converter bottom using a jet-stream with supersonic velocity. This paper presents a summary of two decades' experience with combined blowing technology.


Lemperle M.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Rachner H.-J.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Fechner R.,Kuttner LLC | Kasun D.,Kuttner LLC
AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Dust and sludge from steel plants rich in iron oxides and even fine ores can be processed after agglomeration together in the OxyCup® shaft furnace, a recent cupola development. This allows to receiving back hot metal from wastes for employment in an oxygen converter or electric arc furnace respectively. Such a cupola is extremely attractive for steel shops that are forced to handle their byproducts for economic or legal reasons. Even for the integrated steel plants it has become most important to get rid of the capacity problems encountered with the sinter plant and blast furnace operation when byproducts become a part of the charge. In contrast to EAF and BF operation OxyCup® can easily process high amounts of zinc in the burden that may either originate from steel plant residuals or from automotive scrap. The low price of such high zinc containing materials together with the advantage of selling the zinc-enriched dust or filter cake to a zinc recovery plant strongly favors the economy. Also briquetted sponge iron from direct reduction plants may to a large extent be melted in an OxyCup® shaft furnace. Because the OxyCup® process can also easily melt heavy metallic revert materials like steel plant skulls or metallic fraction from desulfurization slag, these materials may be left out of the BOF and will no longer impair the treatment times because of their unknown metal content and analysis.


Husken R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Cappel J.,Cappel Stahl Consulting GmbH
MPT Metallurgical Plant and Technology International | Year: 2012

One of the most significant improvements in steel quality was the limitation of the sulphur content. That development was driven by the introduction of hot metal and steel desulphurization in integrated steelmaking plants. A side effect was the possibility of optimizing the slag composition in the blast furnace with respect to increased productivity and reduced costs. This article describes the state-of-the-art in desulphurization by explaining the sources of sulphur in iron and steelmaking, the quality requirements of steel products and the desulphurization technology.


The blast furnace process is the most important process to produce crude iron. The necessary process energy is mainly covered by coke. A decisive measure in improving cost effectiveness by reducing the blast furnace coke rate was the injection of auxiliary fuels like pulverized coal, oil or natural gas into the raceway of the blast furnace. This paper will focus primarily on five important steps of continuous improvements in pulverized coal injection technology including the reduction of transport and injection gas to a minimum, the development ofPCI-plant design, the implementation of a fast and accurate injection rate control system, long-distance dense phase conveying and the Oxycoat technology. Finally future trends concerning pulverized coal injection into the blast furnace are discussed.


The pulverized coal injection (PCI) via the tuyères into the raceway of the blast furnace constitutes an important means in order to reduce the coke rate and accordingly the costs of the blast furnace process. The use of the Oxycoal technology involving the simultaneous injection of pure oxygen and pulverized coal via coaxial lances into the tuyère and the raceway of the blast furnace enables further optimization of the economic efficiency. For the prediction of this process a physical process model and subsequently a numerical CFD model have been developed that are able to quantify the outcomes of these complex processes using the Oxycoal technology in quantitative terms.


Guoguang Z.,Shanghei Meishan Iron and Steel Co. | Husken R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Cappel J.,Cappel Stahl Consulting GmbH
AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Meishan Steel in China is an integrated steelplant located close to Nanjing in Jiangsu province in China, 250 miles NW from Shanghai. The plant has a total annual capacity of 3.50m tons per year (tpy) supplying various steel grades including cold forming steel, structural steel, automotive structure steel, corrosion resistant structural steel, welding gas cylinder steel, checker plate, built welded line pipe steel and others. Because of the iron ore source used hot metal Phosphorous content is rather high with 0.12 - 0.15%. To achieve low Phosphorous contents in the molten steel below 0.011 - 0.017% in 2002 the TBM (Thyssen Bottom Metallurgy, with single hole stirring elements) bottom stirring technology was introduced in the plant to improve the performance results. Since the vessel tap weight of 150 t/heat only is rather low, the downtime for BOF reline was reduced by increase of refractory lining life by introduction of slag splashing. Over the last decade a combined technology of long BOF campaign live (10,000 heats and more) with performing TBM bottom stirring was successfully developed. This paper describes the operation technology applied at Meishan steel and demonstrates the benefits achieved by combined blowing technology.


Schott R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2016

A significant measure to improve cost effectiveness of the blast furnace process by reducing the coke rate was the injection of pulverized coal into the raceway of the blast furnace. For an optimal blast furnace operation using pulverized coal injection (PCI), it is necessary that the injected coal is gasified as fast and efficiently as possible within the tuyere and the raceway of the furnace. This paper focuses on some important steps of these PCI improvements accelerating PC gasification. Finally, the economic aspects of using PCI considering the presented optimization steps will be discussed. © Titel-/Coverphoto: SMS group.


Schott R.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Malek C.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG | Schott H.-K.,Kuttner GmbH and Co. KG
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2012

The blast furnace process is the most important process to produce crude iron. The process energy is mainly covered by coke. However, the production of coke is connected with CO 2 emissions and high costs. A significant measure to reduce the coke rate and with it the CO 2 emissions plus costs is pulverized coal injection (PCI) through the tuyeres into the blast furnace. Further improvements can be achieved by using the Oxycoal+ technology. This article compares and shows the cost effectiveness and the decrease of CO 2 emissions with the help of simplified energy balances for the only coke operation of the blast furnace, the operation using PCI and the operation using the Oxycoal+ technology. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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