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Coral Gables, FL, United States

Zhai J.-W.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Zhai J.-W.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Li L.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Chung S.-W.,Taiwan Forestry Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

The taxonomy of the Calanthe alliance (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), consisting of Calanthe, Cephalantheropsis, and Phaius, has been difficult for orchidologists to understand because of the presence of common morphological features. In this study, in addition to morphological and geographical analyses, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer and cpDNA genes of 88 taxa representing the major clades of the Calanthe alliance in China. The results indicated that Cephalantheropsis is monophyletic, while both Phaius and Calanthe are polyphyletic. In Phaius, a total of three species, P. flavus, P. columnaris, and P. takeoi, were segregated to form a new genus, Paraphaius. In Calanthe, subgenus Preptanthe and sect. Styloglossum were both categorized as distinct genera from Calanthe. Our results also confirm that Calanthe delavayi and C. calanthoides are members of Calanthe. Previous studies assigned C. delavayi to Phaius and C. calanthoides to Ghiesbrechtia. Five sections, namely, Alpinocalanthe, Puberula, Ghiesbrechtia, Tricarinata, and Calanthe, three of which are new taxa, were recognized in Calanthe. Therefore, we propose that the Calanthe alliance is composed of six genera: Calanthe, Cephalantheropsis, Paraphaius, Phaius, Preptanthe and Styloglossum. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Meerow A.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Noblick L.,Montgomery Botanical Center | Salas-Leiva D.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Salas-Leiva D.E.,Montgomery Botanical Center | And 6 more authors.
Cladistics | Year: 2015

Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae is the most economically important tribe of palms, including both coconut and African oil palm. It is mostly represented in the Neotropics, with one and two genera endemic to South Africa and Madagascar, respectively. Using primers for six single copy WRKY gene family loci, we amplified DNA from 96 samples representing all genera of the palm tribe Cocoseae as well as outgroup tribes Reinhardtieae and Roystoneae. We compared parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian (B) analysis of the supermatrix with three species-tree estimation approaches. Subtribe Elaeidinae is sister to the Bactridinae in all analyses. Within subtribe Attaleinae, Lytocaryum, previously nested in Syagrus, is now positioned by MP and ML as sister to the former, with high support; B maintains Lytocaryum embedded within Syagrus. Both MP and ML resolve Cocos as sister to Syagrus; B positions Cocos as sister to Attalea. Bactridineae is composed of two sister clades, Bactris and Desmoncus in one, for which there is morphological support, and a second comprising Acrocomia, Astrocaryum, and Aiphanes. Two B and one ML gene tree-species estimation approaches are incongruent with the supermatrix in a few critical intergeneric clades, but resolve the same infrageneric relationships. The biogeographic history of the Cocoseae is dominated by dispersal events. The tribe originated in the late Cretaceous in South America. Evaluated together, the supermatrix and species tree analyses presented in this paper provide the most accurate picture of the evolutionary history of the tribe to date, with more congruence than incongruence among the various methodologies. © 2015 The Willi Hennig Society. Source

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