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Lovelock C.E.,University of Oxford | Cordonnier C.,Lille University Hospital Center | Naka H.,Suiseikai Kajikawa Hospital | Al-Shahi Salman R.,University of Edinburgh | And 8 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2010

Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds (MB) are potential risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but it is unclear if they are a contraindication to using antithrombotic drugs. Insights could be gained by pooling data on MB frequency stratified by antithrombotic use in cohorts with ICH and ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: We performed a systematic review of published and unpublished data from cohorts with stroke or TIA to compare the presence of MB in: (1) antithrombotic users vs nonantithrombotic users with ICH; (2) antithrombotic users vs nonusers with IS/TIA; and (3) ICH vs ischemic events stratified by antithrombotic use. We also analyzed published and unpublished follow-up data to determine the risk of ICH in antithrombotic users with MB. RESULTS: In a pooled analysis of 1460 ICH and 3817 IS/TIA, MB were more frequent in ICH vs IS/TIA in all treatment groups, but the excess increased from 2.8 (odds ratio; range, 2.3-3.5) in nonantithrombotic users to 5.7 (range, 3.4-9.7) in antiplatelet users and 8.0 (range, 3.5-17.8) in warfarin users (P difference≤0.01). There was also an excess of MB in warfarin users vs nonusers with ICH (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; P<0.001) but none in warfarin users with IS/TIA (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.7; P≤0.33; P difference≤0.01). There was a smaller excess of MB in antiplatelet users vs nonusers with ICH (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; P<0.001), but findings were similar for antiplatelet users with IS/TIA (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7; P<0.001; P difference=0.25). In pooled follow-up data for 768 antithrombotic users, presence of MB at baseline was associated with a substantially increased risk of subsequent ICH (OR, 12.1; 95% CI, 3.4-42.5; P<0.001). Conclusions: The excess of MB in warfarin users with ICH compared to other groups suggests that MB increase the risk of warfarin-associated ICH. Limited prospective data corroborate these findings, but larger prospective studies are urgently required. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Ghosh S.,Sapporo Medical University | Gatheru Z.,Gynae paed Medical Center | Gatheru Z.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Nyangao J.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2011

Group A rotavirus (GAR) G8P[1] strains, found sometimes in cattle, have been reported rarely from humans. Therefore, analysis of the full genomes of human G8P[1] strains are of significance in the context of studies on interspecies transmission of rotaviruses. However, to date, only partial-length nucleotide sequences are available for the 11 genes of a single human G8P[1] strain, while the partial sequences of two other strains have been reported. The present study reports the first complete genome sequence of a human G8P[1] strain, B12, detected from an asymptomatic infant in Kenya in 1987. By nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analyses, the full-length nucleotide sequences of VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5 genes of strain B12 were assigned to G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 genotypes, respectively. Each of the 11 genes of strain B12 appeared to be more related to cognate genes of artiodactyl (ruminant and/or camelid) and/or artiodactyl-derived human GAR strains than those of most other rotaviruses. Strain B12 exhibited low levels of genetic relatedness to canonical human GAR strains, such as Wa and DS-1, ruling out the possibility of its origin from reassortment events between artiodactyl-like human and true human strains. These observations suggest that strain B12 might have been directly transmitted from artiodactyls to humans. Unhygienic conditions and close proximity of humans to livestock at the sampling site might have facilitated this rare event. This is the first report on a full genomic analysis of a rotavirus strain from Kenya. To our knowledge, strain B12 might be the oldest G8 strain characterized molecularly from the Africa continent. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Morita S.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Suzuki M.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Iizuka K.,Kushiro City General Hospital
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2010

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and prognosis of pediatric patients with non-organic hearing loss (NOHL), and to heighten awareness of this disorder among physicians. Methods: Between January 2000 and July 2009, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 47 pediatric patients (aged 6-18 years of age) diagnosed with NOHL. The diagnosis was made when there were audiometric discrepancies between the subjective and objective hearing thresholds of the patient in the absence of any organic disease. Results: Eighteen patients presented with unilateral hearing loss, and 29 showed bilateral hearing loss. Five patients received steroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was made, and six had secretory otitis media and underwent a tympanostomy tube placement. Conclusion: If physicians are unaware of the possibility of NOHL; they may misdiagnose children with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and administer high-dose steroid treatments or exploratory tympanotomies. Otoacoustic emissions are abolished when NOHL patients have secretory otitis media. In these cases, after tympanostomy tube placement, they should undergo objective electrophysiologic examinations to reevaluate NOHL. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Morita S.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Suzuki M.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Iizuka K.,Kushiro City General Hospital
ORL | Year: 2010

Purpose of the Study: We aimed to compare the short-term outcome of patients with acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) treated with steroid alone, diuretics alone or combination treatment. Procedures: Between April 2000 and March 2009, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 156 patients with a diagnosis of ALHL. All patients were followed up until improvement or for 8 weeks from the initial examination. Patients were treated with steroid alone (n = 49), diuretics alone (n = 40), combination treatment (n = 46) or they received neither steroid nor diuretics (n = 21). Results: The steroid-diuretic combination therapy for ALHL showed significantly better results than the steroid or diuretic treatments alone (p < 0.05). There were no clinically significant differences in the outcome between the steroid- and diuretic-alone treatments. Conclusion and Message: The etiology of ALHL is described as both an endolymphatic hydrops and an autoimmunological mechanism so that, as expected, the steroid-diuretic combination therapy was more effective than the steroid or diuretic treatments alone. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Imaizumi T.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Inamura S.,Kushiro City General Hospital | Nomura T.,Kushiro City General Hospital
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background This study investigated the contribution of deep cerebral microbleeds (MBs) to stroke recurrences in patients with histories of deep intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) or lacunar infarctions (LIs). Methods We prospectively analyzed stroke recurrences in patients admitted to our hospital who were treated for deep ICHs or LIs between April 2004 and December 2011. The number of deep MBs was counted on admission. Stroke recurrence-free rate curves were generated with the Kaplan-Meier method using the log-rank test. The odds ratios (ORs) for recurrent strokes were derived using multivariate logistic regression models, based on deep MBs and risk factors. Results We evaluated magnetic resonance images or the recurrences of 231 deep-ICH patients (92 women, 68.0 ± 12.0 years old) and 309 LI patients (140 women, 70.7 ± 11.7 years old). The incidences of deep ICHs (1.5%/year) and LIs (2.1%/year) presenting as stroke recurrences were significantly larger in LI patients with deep MBs than in those without (.01 [P =.0001] and.08%/year [P =.005], respectively). However, there was no significant difference between deep-ICH patients with and without MBs in terms of incidence of recurrences. Multivariate analyses revealed that deep MBs independently and significantly elevated the rate of deep ICHs (OR, 19.0; P =.007) or LIs (OR, 3.62; P =.008) presenting as recurrences in LI patients, but not in deep-ICH patients, when adjusted for stroke risk factors. Conclusions There may be differences between patients with deep ICHs and those with LIs in terms of the contribution of deep MBs to stroke recurrence. © 2015 National Stroke Association. Source

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