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Wallerstein, Germany

Stappen I.,University of Vienna | Ali A.,University of Mississippi | Tabanca N.,University of Mississippi | Khan I.A.,University of Mississippi | And 9 more authors.
Current Bioactive Compounds | Year: 2015

The essential oils of two Lamiaceae cultivated in Western Himalaya were examined on their antimicrobial, biting deterrent as well as larvicidal activity. Additionally their odors are described and their chemical compositions analyzed by GC-MS are given. The main component of Nepeta cataria oil was 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone (85%), whereas camphor (27%) and 1,8-cineol (27%) were dominant in the oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The studied essential oils demonstrated high to moderately antimicrobial activity against reference strains, clinical and food spoilage isolates of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony and Candida albicans (MIC 160-640 μg/ml) and indicated low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fluorescens. Both oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but lower than DEET. Nepeta catarica essential oil exhibited high toxicity with LD50 value of 20.2 whereas R. officinalis oil showed only 50% mortality at the highest tested dose of 125 ppm against 1-day old Aedes aegypti larvae at 24-hour post treatment. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Schmidt E.,University of Vienna | Wanner J.,Kurt Kitzing Co. | Hoferl M.,University of Vienna | Jirovetz L.,University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

The essential oils of four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) were analyzed for their composition and antibacterial activity to assess their different properties. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses revealed that the essentials oils can be classified into the chemotypes thymol (41.0% thymol), geraniol (26.4% geraniol), linalool (72.5% linalool) and 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol (42.2% cis- and 7.3% trans-sabinene hydrate, 6.5 % terpinen-4-ol). The olfactory examination confirmed the explicit differences between these chemotypes. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was investigated against several strains of two Gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative food-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fragi). All essential oil samples were demonstrated to be highly effective against Gram-positive strains, whereas the impact on Gram-negative microorganisms was significantly smaller, but still considerable. The results obtained indicate that, despite their different properties, the essential oils of selected T. vulgaris chemotypes are potent antimicrobials to be employed as useful additives in food products as well as for therapeutic applications. Source

Wanner J.,Kurt Kitzing Co. | Bail S.,University of Vienna | Jirovetz L.,University of Vienna | Buchbauer G.,University of Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

Cumin oil samples (Cuminum cyminum L.) from four different geographical origins were analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID for their qualitative and quantitative composition. The major compounds in all cumin oils were the monoterpenes β-pinene, p-cymene and γ-terpinene and the terpenoid aldehydes cuminic aldehyde and the isomeric menthadien carboxaldehydes. All essential oils, and cuminic aldehyde, were tested, using agar diffusion and serial dilution methods, against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources of food (pork fillet, minced meat and sausages) and clinical isolates, as well as three different Candida albicans isolates. All cumin oils and cuminic aldehyde exhibited a considerable inhibitory effect against all the organisms tested, except Pseudomonas spp. Source

Bahri F.,University of Mostaganem | Romane A.,Cadi Ayyad University | Hoferl M.,University of Vienna | Wanner J.,Kurt Kitzing Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2016

This study evaluates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters from Algeria. The essential oils of fresh and dried leaves were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, identifying sixty-two and fifty-four volatile compounds representing 88% and 98% of the total essential oil composition, respectively. The main compounds of T. articulata essential leaf oils were α-pinene (36.1% in fresh, 44.1% in dried leaves), camphor (1.7%/20.1%), bornyl acetate (18.3%/3.1%), limonene (2.9%/5.0%), borneol (2.3%/3.1%), myrcene (2.2%/2.9%), β-caryophyllene (2.3%/1.3%) and camphene (1.5%/1.8%). The antimicrobial activity of T. articulata essential oils were tested against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, responsible for nosocomial infections. Essential oils of T. articulata were active on all pathogenic strains tested. © 2015 Taylor and Francis. Source

Hoferl M.,University of Vienna | Jirovetz L.,University of Vienna | Schmidt E.,University of Vienna | Wanner J.,Kurt Kitzing Co. | And 3 more authors.
Ernahrung | Year: 2013

Various species of Thymus L. are used for medical, flavouring and food preservation purposes. In the current study, the essential oils of inflorescences and leaves of four thyme species (T. broussonetii, T. pallidus, T. maroccanus and T. satureioides) from South-Western Morocco were analysed by simultaneous GC-FID and GC-MS. The main compound was carvacrol, except for T. pallidus (p-cymene) and T. satureioides leaves (borneol). Additionally, antibacterial activities were assessed by agar diffusion and agar dilution assay. Although the essential oils affected most of the Gram-negative test strains on a mediocre level, they exhibited strong activities against Gram-positive bacteria and several Gram-negative bacteria, thus supporting the traditional fields of application of thyme species. Source

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