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Khanaqa P.A.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research | Karim K.H.,University of Sulaimani | Thiel V.,University of Gottingen

Characeae, a family of calcifying green algae, are common in carbonate-rich freshwaters. The southwestern shoreline of Lake Ganau (Kurdistan Region, northeastern Iraq) harbors dense and thick mats of these algae (genus Chara). On the lake bottom and along the shore, carbonate sands and rocks rich in the remains of stems, branches, nodes, and whorls of Chara are deposited. These deposits show all stages of growth and degradation of characean algae, including replacement and lithification into limestone. The replacement of the fragments by fine-grained calcite preserved delicate microstructures of Chara, such as cortical walls, cell shape, inner and outer layers of the stems, and reproductive organs. Based on roundness, sorting, the degree of lithification, and preserved microstructures of the grains (fragments), three facies were recognized. The first is represented by a newly formed lime sand facies showing elongated grains, poor sorting, and reduced roundness, with pristine preservation of characean surface microstructures. The second is a weathered lime sand facies, which shows better sorting and good roundness, whereas internal structures of characean fragments are still well preserved. The third is comprised of a lithified lime sand facies (grainstone), with very well sorted and rounded grains, and poorly preserved external and internal structures of the characeans. As compared to the newly formed lime sand facies, the grainstone facies shows an increase in grain size by more than 30 %, owing to precipitation of micritic lamina of possible microbial origin. Eventually, the Characeae-derived lime sands are lithified into oolitic limestones with sparry calcite cement, forming a grainstone microfacies. The present study has important implications for the interpretation of pre-Quaternary environments, as it records all stages of the fossilization process of characean green algae and highlights the role of these algae in the formation of oolitic carbonate rocks. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Khanaqa P.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research | Karim K.H.,University of Sulaimani | Riegel W.,University of Gottingen

The Mawat-Chwarta valley is located north of the Sulaimania City at Northern Iraq and is surrounded by high mountains on all sides. White laminated sediments with annual varves on a millimetre scale have been recorded at eight localities on the valley gentle slopes. Sedimentological, palaeontological and geomorphological data of these sediments suggest that a lake occupied the valley during the Quaternary. The sediments are of two types, purely fine-grained and fine-grained with coarse interbeds, the two types occur at an elevation difference of about 62. m. The two types are interpreted as representing deep (abyssal) and shoreline deposits, respectively, and indicate the approximate depth of the lake. The sediments contain the fresh water green algae of the genus Botryococcus in addition to a few leaves, scattered plant debris and some pollen grains mainly of herbaceous plants. Contrary to the general south-western drainage pattern in Northern Iraq the Mawat-Chwarta valley is drained to the north, where the Mawat River passes now through deep and narrow gorges along which rock slides and debris plugs are known to have occurred in the past. These mass wasting events are considered here to have blogged the runoff of the valley in the past and eventually led to the formation of a large dammed lake. Numerical chronology work failed, which requires further investigation in the future. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.. Source

Al-Windi A.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research | Al-Windi A.,Center for Family and Community Medicine | Al-Windi A.,Karolinska Institutet | Majeed,University of Sulaimani
Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine

The aim of this study was to exp fore the prevalence of self-reported chrome diseases in relation to socio demographic characteristics, work place and complaint symptoms. A questionnaire dealing with chrome diseases, socio demographic characteristics, work place and symptoms was used. Out of total 1, 300 consequently distributed questionnaires to a sample of the employed at three major factories in Sulaimani governor-ate, Kurdistan, Iraq, 1, 141 were returned. More than halve of the population report having chronic disease. The prevalence of chronic disease was higher among females (59. 4%) as compared to 49. 4% in males. Musculoskeletal disorders were the most common chronic condition (18. 1%). The prevalence of joint disorders was 17. 1%, pain syndrome 15. 6%, hypertension 12. 1%, urinary tract disorders 10. 1%, gastrointestinal disorder 8. 4%, asthma 8. 1%, ear diseases 7. 4%, diabetes and psychiatric disorders 4. 7%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 3. 6%, neurological disorders 3.2%, angina 3.0%, coronary heart disease (CHD)2. 8% and cancer was only 0. 53%. Sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, education, occupation as well as work place were related to the prevalence mean number of chronic diseases. The highest mean number of complaint symptoms was reported among subjects with COPD (14. 1), psychiatric disorders 13. 6, cancer 13.5, heart failure and pain syndrome 13. 2 and asthma 13.0. Psychiatric disorders, musculoskeletal, joint, pain syndrome, eye, ear, gastrointestinal and urinary tract disorders were significantly related to all symptoms except cardiopulmonary symptoms. However, COPD was related to all symptom categories. Preventive actions should focus on reducing risk factors related to chrome disease and particularly cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal and psychiatric disorders. Source

Al-Manmi D.A.M.,University of Sulaimani | Rauf L.F.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research
Arabian Journal of Geosciences

Management of groundwater resources requires modern techniques and scientific principles. Geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria and analytic hierarchy approaches are implemented to identify promising areas for groundwater potential in Halabja city, Kurdistan region. A thematic map of each input factor was produced, derived from various sources including maps of geology, structure, and hydrogeology. The input layers were ranked according to their relative importance in controlling groundwater potential. Each factor is divided into classes based on hydrogeological properties. The classes then are weighted according to their relative importance to groundwater potential. The groundwater potential analysis reveals three distinct zones representing high, moderate, and low groundwater potential in the study area. The delineated groundwater potential map is finally verified using the available extraction rates of 95 wells. Results of such verifications proved that the groundwater potential zones identified by GIS and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) techniques are reliable and representative. © 2016, Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source

Abdullah O.G.,University of Sulaimani | Tahir D.A.,University of Sulaimani | Kadir K.,University of Stockholm | Kadir K.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

Polymer nanocomposite based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and lead sulfide (PbS) in the average radius of (1.88–2.23) nm, have been synthesized using the chemical reduction rote and solution casting technique for different concentrations of PbS. The characterization of the polymer nanocomposite films were carried out using UV–visible spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. The effect of various concentration of PbS NP on the optical properties of the composite has been studied to understand the optimum conditions for the synthesis process. The nanocomposite film shows high UV and visible light absorptions in the wavelength range of (200–500) nm, which correspond to the characteristics of the PbS NPs. The significant decreasing trend of the direct allowed band gap of the nanocomposite was observed upon increasing the Pb source concentration, from (6.27 eV) for pure PVA to (2.34 eV) for 0.04 M PbS concentration, which is much higher than the energy gap of bulk PbS value (0.41 eV). The calculated values of the static refractive index of Cauchy dispersion model were in the range of (1.09–1.20). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the cubic nanocrystalline PbS phase formation. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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