News Article | April 24, 2017
Researchers at Penn State have received more than $1 million in first-year funding from the National Institutes of Health to investigate malaria transmission in Southeast Asia with a goal of working toward the disease's elimination in the region. They will receive up to approximately $9 million over seven years for this project. "In 2014, the most recent year for which data are available, about 438,000 people died from malaria worldwide," said Liwang Cui, professor of entomology, Penn State, and the project's principal investigator. "And that's just a tiny fraction of the people who were diagnosed with malaria that year -- 214 million people contracted the disease." Cui noted that Southeast Asia accounts for 7 percent of global malaria deaths, and the majority of these cases occur along the borders of these countries. Recently, he added, the six Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries -- Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam -- have committed to eliminating malaria by 2030 in all countries of the GMS. Among the many projects they will pursue with their grant, Cui and his colleagues -- which includes Jetsumon Sattabongkot, faculty of science, Mahidol University, Thailand -- will continue to use molecular diagnostic tools to conduct malaria surveillance and to identify transmission hotspots and risk factors for malaria infection, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of current treatment regimens, along the borders of three countries within the GMS -- China, Myanmar and Thailand. The researchers will also examine how environmental changes affect disease transmission, and whether changes in mosquito biting behaviors -- for example, outdoor/indoor biting -- have a genetic basis. In addition, they will use genetic techniques to examine resistance to several commonly-used insecticides among the major vector mosquitoes, and they will track the spread of resistance to other sites. "Our previous work has found that the mortality rates of the Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from both central and southwestern China were all below 90 percent for the five insecticides tested -- deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, malathion and bendiocarb -- suggesting that they [the mosquitos] were all resistant to pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and organochlorines," said Cui. According to Cui, fake drugs to treat malaria are often sold in the border regions of Southeast Asia. As part of their project, he and his colleagues will investigate the extent of this problem using a special diagnostic tool they developed. "Many migrants, due to illegal immigration status, often actively avoid contact with the authorities and seek malaria treatment at private sectors and small drug vendors," he said. "As a result, border areas represent the biggest market for counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs." The team already has made many advances in these areas and the new funding from the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases will enable them to continue this work. "We will use innovative molecular and genomic technologies to reveal the underlying mechanisms needed to design integrated, targeted control measures that attack the roots of the malaria problem," said Cui. "By strategically selecting three countries in this region with drastically different malaria epidemiologies, we expect that the findings of these studies will benefit the entire malaria community." Other researchers of this consortium include Jason Rasgon and Renze Li at Penn State; Daibin Zhong at the University of California, Irvine; Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Saranath Lawpoolsri at Mahidol University; Myat Phone Kyaw, Myo Min, Than Naing Soe at Myanmar Medical Association; Yaming Cao at China Medical University; Baomin Wang at China Agricultural University; and Zhaoqing Yang Kunming Medical University.
Zhong J.-H.,Guangxi Medical University |
Ke Y.,Guangxi Medical University |
Ke Y.,Kunming Medical University |
Wang Y.-Y.,Guangxi Medical University |
Li L.-Q.,Guangxi Medical University
Gut | Year: 2015
Sir, We read with great interest the leading article by Bruix et al1 published in Gut. This article recommended palliative treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving macrovascular invasion, multiple tumours, or portal hypertension. With better patient selection and improvement of perioperative care, liver resection (LR) offers the most consistent and clinically meaningful long-term survival in HCC over the past 20 years, which has been documented by both Eastern and Western centres.23 However, Western official guidelines do not recommend LR for treating intermediate and advanced stage HCC.45 Here, we systematically searched PubMed database for studies investigating the safety and efficacy of LR for treating patients with HCC involving macrovascular invasion, multiple tumours (≥2) or portal hypertension. We only included studies which were published in English on or after January 2000. In the case of multiple studies based on the same patients, we selected the study with the largest sample size.
Yang Z.,Kunming Medical University
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016
Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of regulated cell death executed by the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Recently, necroptosis-based cancer therapy has been proposed to be a novel strategy for antitumor treatment. However, a big controversy exists on whether this type of therapy is feasible or just a conceptual model. Proponents believe that because necroptosis and apoptosis use distinct molecular pathways, triggering necroptosis could be an alternative way to eradicate apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. This hypothesis has been preliminarily validated by recent studies. However, some skeptics doubt this strategy because of the intrinsic or acquired defects of necroptotic machinery observed in many cancer cells. Moreover, two other concerns are whether or not necroptosis inducers are selective in killing cancer cells without disturbing the normal cells and whether it will lead to inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize current studies surrounding this controversy on necroptosis-based antitumor research and discuss the advantages, potential issues, and countermeasures of this novel therapy.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 26 February 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2016.8. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited
Tai W.L.,Kunming Medical University
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University | Year: 2012
To investigate the effect of intravenous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation for early intervention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Thirty-six mice were randomized into control group, PBS-treated ALI group, and MSC-treated ALI group. In the latter two groups, mouse models of ALI were established by intranasal instillation of LPS, and 1 h later, the 4th passage of MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of mice or PBS were administered via the tail vein. The histological findings, lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, neutrophil count and protein and cytokine contents in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in the lung tissue were analyzed at 24 h after MSC administration. Engraftment of MSCs in the recipient lung was determined by fluorescent PKH26 staining and flow cytometry. Compared with the control group, PBS-treated ALI group showed significantly higher protein levels, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neutrophil count in the BALF and MPO content in the lung tissue, with also severe damage of lung histology. MSCs administration significantly reduced the lung W/D weight ratio, the levels of protein, TNF-α, IL-6 and neutrophil count in the BALF and MPO content in the lung tissue, and obviously lessened the lung injury 24 h after the transplantation. MSC administration also significantly increased the level of IL-10 in the BALF. Intravenous MSC transplantation can effectively improve the lung histology, attenuate the inflammatory response, reduce pulmonary edema in the early stage of LPS-induced ALI in mice, and such effects are independent of MSC engraftment in the lungs.
Zhong H.,Kunming Medical University
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012
We evaluated the prevalence of glaucoma in adults of the Bai Nationality populations in rural China. A population-based survey of Chinese Bai Nationality aged ≥50 years from randomly selected block groups in southwestern China was conducted. Eligible persons were invited to local examination sites for a complete ophthalmic examination. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification scheme. In the study, 2133 subjects (77.8% participation rate) were examined, with a crude prevalence of all glaucoma of 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6%-2.9%). Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was found in 1.0% of cases (95% CI 0.6%-1.6%) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in 0.9% (95% CI 0.6%-1.4%). The prevalence of all glaucoma was significantly higher in older people and women. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 16.17 ± 3.74 mm Hg (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 24 mm Hg and 30 mm Hg, respectively). The mean vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) was 0.43 ± 0.17 (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles 0.7 and 0.8, respectively). Unilateral blindness was found in 80% of PACG, compared to only 36.3% of POAG cases. Prevalence of POAG is similar to PACG in the ethnic Bai population living in rural southwestern China. PACG has a worse visual impairment and prognosis compared to POAG.
Li Y.,Kunming Medical University
Cancer Research and Clinic | Year: 2014
Objective: To determine the relationship between CCDC8 gene and breast cancer. Methods: 40 cancerous breast tissue and 22 benign breast tissue were included. qRT-PCR was performed to investigate the expression level of CCDC8 in breast tissue. The correlation between CCDC8 level and the age of patients, tumor size, clinical staging, and the expression levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors, CerbB2, Ki-67, p53 and nm23 were analyzed. Results: The expression level of CCDC8 in benign breast tissue (1685±755) was significantly higher than that in cancerous tissues (502.1±223.2). Tissues obtained from patients over age 50 showed an increased level of CCDC8 (789.8±367) in comparison to those from patients age 50 or younger (452.5±170.3). The level of CCDC8 expression was negatively correlated with nm23 level (Correlation Coefficient = -0.400, P = 0.039), while no correlation was found between CCDC8 and cancer stages, estrogen and progesterone receptor, CerbB2, Ki-67and p53. Conclusion: The negative correlations between CCDC8 and age, tumor size and nm23 indicate that CCDC8 is a potential tumor suppressor, influencing the occurrence and progression in breast cancer.
Wang Y.,Kunming Medical University
Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques | Year: 2015
STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study.OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether PJK or obvious proximal junctional angle (PJA) changes in the sagittal plane develops following short fusion in children younger than 10 years of age with congenital scoliosis, and to investigate the possible risk factors.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following long spinal fusion in adolescents and adults is a serious postoperative complication. Although the same problem may occur patients with early onset scoliosis (EOS) that have undergone spine fusion, few studies have been reported any relationship between PJK and spinal fusion in young children with congenital scoliosis.METHODS:: Thirty-seven children treated in a single institution between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The inclusion criteria included (1) <10 years of age at the time of operation; (2) simple congenital deformity; (3) hemivertebra treated by posterior hemivertebrectomy with short fusion at a maximum of 5 motion segments; (4) minimum follow-up two years. The PJA from the caudal endplate of the upper instrumentation vertebral (UIV) to the cephalad endplate of the vertebra adjacent to the UIV, thoracic kyphosis (T5-T12), lumbar lordosis (T12-S1), global sagittal balance, and magnitude of scoliosis of the major curves and upper compensated curves were measured on lateral radiographs. PJK was defined by a PJA greater than 10° during the follow-up and at least 10° greater than the preoperative or early postoperative measurement. Wilcoxon tests were performed for statistical analysis.RESULTS:: PJK occurred in 7 out of 37 patients (18.9%), during an average of 4.5±3.2 years follow-up (2-12 y). The UIV level of children with PJK was on T9 in four patients, and T11, T12, and L1 in one. Screw malposition at UIV was confirmed by postoperative CT images in six patients. Only one patient with a screw deviation did not develop PJK during the follow-up period. None of the patients with PJK was symptomatic, and no patients required revision surgery because of PJK. PJK occurred and progressed during the first six months after surgery followed by almost no progression or slight improvement in patients that could be followed up beyond 6 months postoperatively; in association with an increase of the lumbar lordosis.CONCLUSIONS:: PJK occurred in pediatric patients with simple congenital deformities following hemivertebrectomy and short fusion. PJK was more common in patients with (1) greater immediately postoperative segmental kyphosis and proximal junctional angle, (2) screw malposition on the UIV, and (3) hemivertebra located on the lower thoracic or the thoracolumbar region. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Xiong P.,Kunming Medical University
The Journal of clinical psychiatry | Year: 2014
It is difficult for clinicians to diagnose schizophrenia solely based on interviews. We explored the diagnostic efficiency and predictive capability of serum biomarkers for schizophrenia. Levels of β nerve growth factor (β-NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), calcium binding protein S100β, myelin basic protein (MBP), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were measured in the sera of 278 schizophrenia patients, 240 depression and bipolar disorder patients, and 260 healthy controls. DSM-IV-TR criteria were used as the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and depressive and bipolar disorders. The diagnostic efficiency was high in patients with schizophrenia compared with the healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to ascertain the diagnostic efficiency of the 8 proteins. Data were collected between July 2010 and December 2012. One-way analysis of variance significantly demonstrated lower serum BDNF, MBP, and GFAP levels (F = 16.504, P < .001; F = 207.209, P < .001; F = 33.668, P < .001, respectively) but higher serum IL-6 and S100β concentrations (F = 15.250, P < .001; F = 12.751, P < .001, respectively) among patients with schizophrenia. ROC analysis of the discriminant scores of the serum β-NGF, BDNF, IL-6, S100β, MBP, and GFAP levels resulted in significant discrimination between the schizophrenia and control groups (AUC = 0.922) and the depressive/bipolar disorder and control groups (AUC = 0.762). Serum levels of 6 proteins (but not TNF-α and IFN-γ) contribute most to the diagnosis of schizophrenia. These proteins may prove to be useful adjuncts for the clinical assessment of this disease. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Dong K.X.,Kunming Medical University
Orthopaedic surgery | Year: 2014
To investigate the efficiency of perforator pedicled propeller flaps for soft tissue coverage of lower leg and foot defects. Twenty patients (12 male, 8 females; mean age 28 years, range, 5-75) with soft tissue defects of the lower leg and foot were retrospectively reviewed. Their defects had been repaired with perforator pedicled propeller flaps from September 2011 to October 2013 and included five cases of injuries caused by spokes, four of infection with postoperative skin necrosis, two of dorsal skin defects caused by heavy objects and nine caused by car accidents. The areas of soft tissue defect were from 2 cm × 8 cm to 10 cm × 20 cm. Fifteen cases had terminal branch of the peroneal artery perforator flaps and five posterior tibia artery perforator flaps, flap size ranging from 5 cm × 11 cm to 12 cm × 28 cm. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to locate all perforator vessels, the calibers of which ranged from 0.8 mm to 1.0 mm. The intraoperative coincidence rate of the color Doppler ultrasound was 96.7%. The donor sites were sutured directly in 12 cases and skin grafted in 8. One case had a venous crisis within 24 h that was treated by removal some sutures and drainage. All cases were followed up for 1-18 months; all flaps survived well and pedicles had a satisfactory appearance. The patients were extremely satisfied with the results for repair. Perforator pedicled propeller flaps have the advantages over other pedicle flap of being simple, safe, and effective and not involving vascular anastomosis. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Yang C.-R.,Kunming Medical University
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016
Chronic exposure to stressful environment is a key risk factor contributing to the development of depression. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has long been investigated for its positive role in regulation of mood, although the role of its precursor, proBDNF, in regulation of mood is not known. In this study, using an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm we found that the protein levels of proBDNF were increased in the neocortex and hippocampus of stressed mice and this UCMS-induced upregulation of proBDNF was abolished by chronic administration of fluoxetine. We then established a rat model of UCMS and found that the expression of proBDNF/p75NTR/sortilin was upregulated, whereas the expression of mature BDNF and TrkB was downregulated in both neocortex and hippocampus of chronically stressed rats. Finally, we found that the injection of anti-proBDNF antibody via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) approaches into the UCMS rats significantly reversed the stress-induced depression-like behavior and restored the exploratory activity and spine growth. Although intramuscular injection of AAV-proBDNF did not exacerbate the UCMS-elicited rat mood-related behavioral or pathological abnormalities, i.c.v. injection of AAV-proBDNF increased the depression-like behavior in naive rats. Our findings suggest that proBDNF plays a role in the development of chronic stress-induced mood disturbances in rodents. Central (i.c.v.) or peripheral (i.p.) inhibition of proBDNF by injecting specific anti-proBDNF antibodies may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of stress-related mood disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 13 July 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.100. © 2016 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology