Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center

Xishan, China

Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center

Xishan, China
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Zhan X.,Peking University | Bo Y.,Peking University | Zhou F.,Peking University | Liu X.,China Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has significantly influenced aquatic ecosystems, especially with regard to their N budgets and phytoplankton growth potentials. Compared to a considerable number of studies on oligotrophic lakes and oceanic waters, little evidence for the importance of N deposition has been generated for eutrophic lakes, even though emphasis has been placed on reducing external N inputs to control eutrophication in these lakes. Our high-resolution observations of atmospheric depositions and riverine inputs of biologically reactive N species into eutrophic Lake Dianchi (the sixth largest freshwater lake in China) shed new light onto the contribution of N deposition to total N loads. Annual N deposition accounted for 15.7% to 16.6% of total N loads under variable precipitation conditions, 2-fold higher than previous estimates (7.6%) for the Lake Dianchi. The proportion of N deposition to total N loads further increased to 27-48% in May and June when toxic blooms of the ubiquitous non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. are initiated and proliferate. Our observations reveal that reduced N (59%) contributes a greater amount than oxidized N to total N deposition, reaching 56-83% from late spring to summer. Progress toward mitigating eutrophication in Lake Dianchi and other bloom-impacted eutrophic lakes will be difficult without reductions in ammonia emissions and subsequent N deposition. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Li F.R.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang J.T.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Huang J.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Chen Y.J.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

To figure out the arsenic pollution source and characteristics in the slag field around the Yangzonghai Lake, we made deep monitoring analysis. We employed the X fluorescence metal scene analyzer and also the traditional atomic fluorescence spectrometry method for precision analysis. It finds out the arsenic pollution level, spatial change regulation, the vertical distribution characteristics, and pollution diffusion path. The work could provide effectively technical support for the soil arsenic pollution prevention in the area. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhao S.M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao S.M.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang B.,Southwest University of Science and Technology | Wang D.W.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the priority controlling list of US EPA were systematically evaluated in surface sediments in Dianchi Lake and its estuaries. Total PAH concentrations (σPAHs) varied from 210 to 11,070 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) in Dianchi Lake, and from 230 to 12,271 ng/g d.w. in the estuaries. σPAHs in sediments from Caohai section were higher than those from Waihai section. The occurrences of PAHs in the Lake were closely related to the distributions of rivers, indicating that the river runoff was an important pathway of PAHs into the Lake. Compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), σPAHs in most area were below the effect range low (ERL), which implied that the adverse biological effects would occur rarely. The toxic equivalent concentrations of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQcarc) varied from 19 to 967 ng TEQ/g d.w., and the higher values were found in northern Caohai area. The proportions of the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQcarc) to the total TEQs in sediments were all above 96%, suggesting that the carcinogenicity of PAHs could be occurred. Significantly positive correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) and less molecular weight PAHs (2, 3-ring) (LPAHs) were observed in the Lake. Diagnostic ratios showed that the primary source of PAHs in Dianchi Lake and most estuaries is biomass combustion, but is petroleum combustion or petrogenic origin in several other estuaries.

Bi L.-M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Hao J.-M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Hao J.-M.,Tsinghua University | Ning P.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

A set of PM2.5 samples from three sampling sites belonging to the regional air monitoring networks of Kunming were collected during April 2013 to January 2014, and 16selected PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS. Average concentrations of PM2.5-bound PAHs from the industrial area (Jinding Mountain), traffic area (Dongfeng Tung Road) and clean area (Xishan Forest Park) were 40.67, 22.64, 22.07 ng/m3. High atmospheric pressure and the input of air mass originated from the Qujing area were the cause of rising PAHs concentration in Kunming. Result of health risk assessment of PAHs showed, the concentration of BaPeq at Jinding Mountain, Dongfeng Tung Road and Xishan Forest Park was 6.28, 4.00, 2.94 ng/m3, respectively, exceeded the national ambient air quality standard (2.5 ng/m3) in China. The PAHs in industrial area and traffic area were mainly influenced by vehicle emission (50.80% and 40.20%), followed by coal combustion (35.55% and 39.23%), biomass combustion (7.30% and 7.98%); clean area was effected by vehicle emission (81.84%) and biomass combustion (9.73%). ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.

Li F.R.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Yang S.P.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Yu D.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang H.M.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The golf course industry has become increasingly aware of potential problems related to pesticide and fertilizer movement from soil into surface water and groundwater [1]. The objective of this study was to monitor and analysis the pollution level and scope, varying pattern, diffusion characteristics and the impact on the lake which are influenced by the Spring City Golf Course located in the catchment area of Yangzonghai Lake. It produced data on the quality of the surface water bodies, groundwater and soil environment including nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides and heavy metal, and proposed some control measures in the last part. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wan X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao S.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao S.,Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center | And 3 more authors.
Chromatographia | Year: 2011

An efficient and reliable method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the extraction and analysis of six phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol-di-ethoxylate (NP2EO), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) in surface water and sediment. The method was developed by using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization procedure. The MAE procedures were performed by optimizing three key process factors, consisted of extraction solvent, extraction temperature and holding time, affecting the extraction efficiency from sediment samples. For SPE, various parameters that may affect the recovery efficiency of water samples, such as SPE phase cartridge, elution solvent, as well as pH of water samples, were investigated. A series of derivatization conditions, such as derivatization reagent, reaction temperature and reaction time, were improved. The method achieved good repeatability and reproducibility with relative standard deviations <13% for all target EDCs in the both samples. Satisfactory recoveries for spiked water and sediment samples ranged from 85 to 101% and 74 to 105%, respectively. The limits of quantification varied from 0.20 (4-t-OP) to 11.50 ng L-1 (NP2EO) and from 0.31 (4-t-OP) to 9.50 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) (NP2EO) for water samples and sediment samples, respectively. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of target EDCs in surface water and sediment samples collected from Caohai site of Dianchi Lake, China. The results showed that NP1EO, NP2EO and BPA were the three dominant phenolic EDCs in the site, reaching 114, 97 and 149 ng L -1 in surface water, while 444, 186 and 178 ng g-1 dw in surface sediment, respectively. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Huang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Pan X.-J.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wan X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Liu J.-L.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Fenxi Huaxue/ Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of steroid endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethynylestradoil (EE2), in water was developed by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To explain the necessity of heating and catalyst in previous papers where N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) or N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) was used as derivatization reagent, the derivatization condition and effect of BSTFA and MSTFA were studied. Based on the results, BSTFA was applied to derivatize steroids in waters without heating and catalyst. By optimizing SPE parameters, the best recoveries of steroids were obtained when water pH value was adjusted to 4.5 and Oasis HLB cartridge was used; moreover, 10 mL acetone was efficient in eluting steroids from SPE cartridges. Under the optimal conditions, linear detection range was 1-500 ng L-1 for E1 and E2, whereas it was 5-500 ng L -1 for EE2 and E3. The correlation coefficient (R2) was above 0.98 for all the analytes, with the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1-1.3 ng L-1 and 0.3-4.2 ng L -1, respectively. The proposed method was further verified by performing spiking experiments on Dianchi Lake water at three spike levels (5, 50 and 300 ng L-1), with good recoveries (83.8%-94.7%) and RSD (3.2%-9.1%, n = 6) for all the target compounds. The established method was successfully applied to determine steroids in water samples from Dianchi Lake, Green Lake, and effluent of Kunming fifth sewage treatment plant. Copyright © 2011.

Wan X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Pan X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao S.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Six commonly occurring polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153 and PCB180) were measured in water, surface sediments, and sediment core samples from 10 monitoring stations across Dianchi Lake in Kunming, China to determine the distributions, historical trends, and sources of PCBs to this ecologically and regionally important water body. The summed total concentration of all six PCB congeners ranged from 13 to 72ngL -1 in water, 0.6-2.4ngg -1dry weight (d.w.) in surface sediment, and from non-detectable to 2.2ngg -1d.w. in sediment core samples. The six PCB congeners were found to demonstrate similar distribution characteristics across water and surface sediment samples, with PCB28 and PCB52 accounting for more than 67% of the total summed concentration in both matrices. The concentration of individual congeners in each media decreased in the order of PCB28>PCB52>PCB101≈PCB138≈PCB153≈PCB180. Analysis of PCB congeners in sediment core layers as a function of depth revealed two distinct peaks occurring in the top velocity layer and in the layer between 25 and 30cm in depth (corresponding to 1970s). Core sediment analysis showed PCBs are currently being released to Dianchi Lake and showed the historical trends of PCB deposition into the lake sediment. Data from this multi-media exploration of PCBs can be used by researchers, regulators, and policy makers to understand the fate of PCBs in Dianchi Lake, and also to begin to identify current sources of PCBs to the lake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Huang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Jin W.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

Phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds, including nonylphenol-di- ethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), were investigated in water, surface sediment and sediment cores in Dianchi Lake to track their seasonal distributions, pollution sources and historical trends. The concentrations of NP2EO, NP1EO, 4-NP, BPA, 4-CP and 4-t-OP were up to 295.14, 448.48, 45.28, 530.33, 8.96 and 21.37 ng L -1 in water, and up to 297.11, 809.63, 4.58, 166.87, 3.62 and 40.69 ng g -1 dry weight in surface sediment, respectively. Except BPA in water, concentrations of all the other phenolic compounds in both of the matrices were higher in January than in July, 2011. The concentrations decreased significantly with an increase in distance from the sampling locations which were adjacent to the urban areas (Kunming City, Chenggong City and Jinning City). The pollution of phenolic EDCs came mainly from industry, agriculture and daily life. The relationships between the concentrations of target compounds and the six water quality parameters were evaluated. There were significant positive correlations between concentrations of phenolic compounds in water and in surface sediment. For sediment cores, three clearly separated maxima occurred in segments 0-5 cm (the late 2000s), 5-10 cm (the early and mid of 2000s) and 20-25 cm (the mid of 1980s), respectively. NP2EO, NP1EO and BPA were the three dominant compounds in the lake. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Huang B.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Jin W.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao S.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study are to track the occurrence, distribution, and sources of phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the 22 rivers around Dianchi Lake in China, to estimate the input and output amounts of phenolic EDCs in the water system, and to provide more comprehensive fundamental data for risk assessment and contamination control of phenolic EDCs in aquatic environment. Six phenolic EDCs were systematically evaluated in water and surface sediment in the estuaries of those rivers. The water and sediment samples were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted extraction system, respectively. Phenolic EDCs were analyzed by GC-MS (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) after derivatization. Phenolic EDCs were found ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. The total concentrations ranged from 248 to 4,650 ng/L in water, and 113 to 3,576 ng/g dry weight in surface sediment. The residue amount of phenolic EDCs in Dianchi Lake was 258 kg/a. Concentrations of the phenolic EDCs in the Lake decreased with increase in distance to the estuaries of those rivers which run through urban and industrial areas. The rivers seriously contaminated by phenolic EDCs were Xin River, Yunliang River, Chuanfang River, Cailian River, Jinjia River, Zhengda River, and Daqing River which run through the old area of Kunming City. Satisfying correlations were observed between the concentrations of the target compounds in water and in surface sediment. NP1EO, NP2EO, and BPA were identified as the three predominant phenolic EDCs. There were significant correlations between phenolic EDCs and many basic water quality parameters. Urban and industrial areas are the major contributors for phenolic EDCs, especially in Kunming City. Compositional profiles of phenolic EDCs in surface sediment were similar to those in river water. The concentrations of phenolic EDCs in the rivers located in the northwest part of the valley were very high, and posed a potential risk to aquatic organisms and even human. The concentrations of NP2EO, NP1EO, and BPA were at moderate levels of other areas. The basic water quality parameters (TOC, TN, DO, and pH) play important roles on the distribution, fate, and behavior of phenolic EDCs in the valley. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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