Naini Tal, India
Naini Tal, India

Kumaun University is a state university headquartered in Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Wikipedia.


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Tewari B.C.,Kumaun University
General Relativity and Gravitation | Year: 2013

We present a new class of exact solutions of relativistic field equations for a collapsing spherically symmetric shear-free isotopic fluid undergoing radial heat flow. The interior solutions are matched with Vaidya exterior metric over the boundary. Initially the interior solutions represent a static configuration of perfect fluid which then gradually starts evolving into radiating collapse. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Active faults of the densely forest covered northwestern part of the Ganga Plain have been identified and mapped on the basis of geomorphic signatures as observed in the Digital Terrain Models, remote sensing data and field. The structural limit between the Ganga Plain and Himalaya in the north is defined by the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT), which is a direct consequence of the compression resulting from collision of Indian and Eurasian plates and present day principal displacement zone between them. This HFT is offset by dip-slip, oblique-slip and strike-slip faults, extending transversely through the Ganga Basin. Analysis of these faults in conjunction with the available geological and subsurface geophysical data reveals that the development of some of these transverse faults is localized along basement highs of the basin. These faults tear asunder the Himalayan thrust sheets and may have developed during the collision either because of a rheological contrast between the basement highs and adjacent sedimentary fill, or a lateral change in cover thickness across the basement highs, or due to the reactivation of pre-existing basement faults. The continuous pressing and prodding by these basement highs have caused bending of the strata, leading to conspicuous bending of the mountain belt. One of the tear faults has formed as a result of the along-strike propagation of an oblique ramp of the Main Boundary thrust (MBT), along which the Lesser Himalayan succession is thrust over the Siwalik. In addition to these tear faults, some transverse faults of limited lateral extent, cutting through the mountain belt and basin, may have formed during the last event of deformation along the HFT zone. © 2012 The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Srivastava P.,Kumaun University
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Rhododendron arboreum is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a showy display of bright red flowers. The RHODODENDRON ' 'name' is derived from the Greek word 'RHODO' means rose & 'DENDRON' means tree. Rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal & is known as (Laligurans) & the state tree of Uttarakhand. It is called 'Burans, Bras, Buras or Barahke- phool' in local dialect. It is widely popular for the processed juice of its flowers which have gained market popularity as rhodojuice/sharbat. The plant is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir eastwards to Nagaland. Various parts of the plant exhibited medicinal properties & is used for the treatment of various ailments. The present review is an effort to give the detailed survey of literature on its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry & pharmacological uses of the plant under study.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper, we represent 16-component sedenions, the generalization of octonions, which is noncommutative space-time algebra. The sedenions is neither a composition algebra nor a division algebra because it has zero divisors. Here we have formulated the sedenionic unified potential equations, unified fields equations and unified current equations of dyons and gravito-dyons. We have developed the sedenionic unified theory of dyons and gravito-dyons in terms of two eight-potentials leading to the structural symmetry between generalized electromagnetic fields of dyons and generalized gravito-Heavisidian fields of gravito-dyons. Thus we have obtained the sedenionic form of generalized Dirac-Maxwell's equations, unified work-energy theorem (Poynting theorem), generalized unified gravi-electromagnetic force and other quantum equations of dyons and gravito-dyons in simple, compact and consistent way incorporating the non-associativity and non-commutativity of sedenion variables. © 2014 Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2014

Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8×8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight — dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 × 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 × 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8×8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons. © 2014, The Korean Physical Society.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
Turkish Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

We know that the octonion algebra is the largest division algebra. Therefore, we have discussed the octonion 8-dimensional space as the combination of 2 (external and internal) 4-dimensional spaces. The octonion wave equations in terms of 8 components has been written in terms of an 8 × 8 matrix. Octonion forms of potential as well as fields equations of dyons in terms of an 8 × 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. At last, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons in two 4-dimensional spaces, from the 8 × 8 matrix representation of octonion wave equations. Generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell's equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, i.e. analogous to electric charges and currents.. © TÜBİTAK.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
General Relativity and Gravitation | Year: 2014

In this paper, we have made an attempt to reformulate the generalized field equation and various quantum equations of massive dyons in terms of octonion eight dimensional space as the combination of two (external and internal) four dimensional spaces. The octonion forms of generalized potential and current equations of massive dyons are discussed in consistent manner. It has been shown that due to the non associativity of octonion variables it is necessary to impose certain constraints to describe generalized octonion massive electrodynamics in manifestly covariant and consistent manner. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Felsic magmatisms in the north of Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) in Ladakh range of northwest Indian Himalaya, referred herein Ladakh granitoids (LG), and associated magmatic rocks constitute the bulk of the Ladakh batholith. They have been characterized as Andean-type, calc-alkaline, largely metaluminous (I-type) to a few peraluminous (S-type) granitoids derived from partial melting of subducting materials. The LG can be broadly classified into coarsegrained facies with abundant mafics (hbl-bt), medium-grained facies with low content of mafics, and fine-grained leucocratic facies with very low amount of mafics. Mesocratic to melanocratic, rounded to elliptical, fine to medium grained, mafic to hybrid microgranular enclaves (ME) are ubiquitous in medium to coarse-grained LG. ME are absent or rare in the leucocratic variety of LG In this paper different types of ME, and their field relation and microstructures with respect to felsic host LG are documented from northwestern, central, southeastern parts of the Ladakh batholith. Rounded to elongate ME of variable sizes (a few cm to metres across, mostly d<30 cm) commonly having sharp, crenulate, and occasionally diffuse contacts of ME with felsic host LG suggest that several pulses of crystal-charged mafic and felsic magmas coexisted, hybridized, and co-mingled into subvolcanic settings. Occurrence of composite ME (several small mafic ME enclosed into large porphyritic ME) strongly point to multiple mafic to hybrid magma intrusions into partly crystalline LG magma chambers. Synplutonic mafic dykes disrupted to form subrounded to angular (brecciated) mafic ME swarms commonly disposed in strike-length suggest mafic magma injections at waning stage of felsic magma evolution with large rheological contrasts. Pillowing of mafic melt against leucocratic (aplitic) residual melt strongly suggests mafic magma intrusion in nearly-crystallized condition of pluton. Although common mineral asemblages (hblbt-pl-kfs-qtz-ap- zrn-mt±ilm) of ME (diorite, quartzdiorite) and host LG (granodiorite, monzogranite) may relate to their cogenetic relation, fine to medium grained porphyritic (hybrid) nature and lack of cumulate texture of ME strongly oppose cognate origin for ME. Presence of plagioclase xenocrysts, quartz ocelli and accicular apatite in porphyritic ME strongly indicate mingling and undercooling of hybridized ME globules into relatively crystal-charged cooler host LG magma. Grain size differences of some ME, except to those of porphyritic ones, appear related to varying degrees of undercooling of ME most likely controlled by their variable sizes. Several smaller ME, however, lack fine-grained chilled margin probably because of their likely disaggregation from a large size ME during the course of progressive hybridization (mingling to mixing) leaving behind trails of mafic schlieren. Field and microstructural evidences at least suggest that Ladakh granitoids and their microgranular enclaves are products of multistage magma mingling and mixing processes concomitant fractional differentiation of several batches of mafic and felsic magmas formed in open magma chamber(s) of subduction setting. © GEOL. SOC. INDIA.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
Reports on Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

Describing the properties of split octonions and their connection with the 2 × 2 Zorn vector-matrix, we have reformulated generalized linear gravitational field equations in terms of split octonions in consistent and symmetrical manner. Starting with 2 × 2 Zorn vector-matrix algebra, we have written the generalized gravito-Heavisidian (GH) potential, field and current equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions. Accordingly, we have obtained the gravitational analogues of generalized Dirac-Maxwell's and Proca-Maxwell's equations for linear gravito-Heavisidian (GH) field of gravito-dyons in the case of split octonionic representation. We have made an attempt to write the Poynting theorem in terms of split octonions which is analogous to the work-energy theorem of classical mechanics reproducing the continuity equation. Accordingly, we have described some fundamental laws of physics, i.e. the conservation of energy and momentum for the case of classical geometro-dynamics which exhibits linear gravitational theory of gravito-dyons. © 2015 Polish Scientific Publishers.


Chanyal B.C.,Kumaun University
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

In this paper, we describe the properties of split octonions and their connection with the 2 × 2 Zorn vector matrix containing both scalar and vector components. Starting with a brief description of gravito-dyons, we reformulate the generalized linear gravitational field equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonion. We express the generalized gravito-Heavisidian (GH) potentials, fields, and various wave equations of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions variables. Accordingly, we demonstrate the work-energy theorem of classical mechanics reproducing the continuity equation for the case of gravito-dyons in terms of split octonions. Further, we discuss the split octonionic form of linear momentum conservation law for gravito-dyons in the case of linear gravitational theory. We have summarized the various split octonion equations for the case of the generalized GH-field of gravito-dyons and the generalized electromagnetic field of dyons. The unified fields of dyons and gravitodyons have been demonstrated and corresponding field equations are discussed in unique and consistent manner in terms of split octonions. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

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