Kumamoto, Japan
Kumamoto, Japan

Kumamoto University , abbreviated to Kumadai , is a Japanese public university located in Kumamoto, Kumamoto prefecture in the Kyushu region of Japan. It was established on May 31, 1949, at which time the following institutions were subsumed into it; Kumamoto Teachers College , Kumamoto Pharmaceutical College , the Fifth High School , Kumamoto Medical College , and Kumamoto Technical College . Currently, the university has seven faculties and eight graduate schools with a total of around 10,000 Japanese students and 400 international students from Asia, North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania. Wikipedia.


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Provided are a method for preparing a mammalian ovum or embryo in which zona pellucida has been thinned or eliminated, and a method for fertilization using the mammalian ovum prepared by the aforementioned method. The resulting mammalian ovum or embryo is capable of realizing an improved fertilization rate and development rate when used for in vitro fertilization, transplantation of a fertilized ovum, or for preparation of an embryo in the early stages of development used in the production of a genetically modified animal.


The purpose of the present invention is to provide pluripotent cells that are highly safe in applications for regenerative medicine, and a method for producing the same. Another purpose of the present invention is in particular to provide pluripotent cells that pose fewer problems with respect to malignant transformation of cells and that arouse less concern about safety regarding the presence of bacteria inside cells, and a method for producing the same. The present invention provides a method for producing pluripotent cells from somatic cells. This method includes a step for inducing reprogramming of cells by bringing a ribosome fraction of biological origin into contact with somatic cells. The present invention also provides a composition for inducing cell reprogramming, the composition including a ribosome fraction of biological origin.


Patent
Mitsui Mining, Smelting Co. and Kumamoto University | Date: 2017-03-08

The invention relates to a catalyst carrier for exhaust gas purification catalyst which contains a metal phosphate containing Zr, and it provides a new catalyst carrier which exhibits excellent NOx purification performance in a high temperature region. The invention proposes a carrier for exhaust gas purification catalyst containing a metal phosphate which has a NASICON type structure and contains Zr.


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, biodiesel extracted from microalgae is an increasingly important part of the bioenergy field. While it releases a similar amount of CO2 as petroleum when burned, the CO2 released from biodiesel is that which has recently been removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis meaning that it does not contribute to an increase of the greenhouse gas. Furthermore, research has shown that microalgae produces a much higher percentage of their biomass to usable oil in a significantly smaller land mass than terrestrial crops. Currently, one of the largest obstacles in replacing diesel with biodiesel is the cost of production. Fossil fuels are still cheaper than biofuels so improvements in production efficiency are highly sought-after. Recently, efforts have been made by researchers in Japan to reduce the cost of biodiesel production by using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to extract hydrocarbons from microalgae. A milli- or microsecond PEF is typically used to weaken cell walls and increase permeability allowing for extraction of elements inside the cell. Kumamoto University researchers, on the other hand, used a nanosecond PEF (nsPEF) to focus on the microalgae matrix instead of the cells. A nsPEF generally uses less energy than the μs/msPEFs even at high voltages, and is not as destructive or costly as the traditional drying method of oil extraction. The researchers performed several tests with the nsPEF on the microalgae Botryococcus braunii (Bb) to determine the optimal electric field, energy, and pulse repetition frequency for hydrocarbon extraction. Interestingly, it was found that doubling the energy only resulted in a 10% increase in hydrocarbon extraction. At 10 Hz, the optimal field and energy conditions were determined to be approximately 50 kV/cm and 55.6 J/ml respectively per volume of algae. Further, the researchers found that pulse frequency had little to no effect on extraction percentage, meaning that a large amount of hydrocarbons may be extracted quickly for large/industrial systems. "The advantage with this extraction mechanism is that it separates hydrocarbons from a matrix, rather than extracts them from cells. Other microalgae do not secrete a matrix so the cell membranes must be damaged or destroyed to get at the hydrocarbons, which both takes more energy and is less efficient than our method," said lead researcher, Professor Hamid Hosseini of the Institute of Pulsed Power Science at Kumamoto University. "On top of that, many extraction processes practiced today use a drying method to extract oil which ends in the destruction of the algae. Our method is relatively non-destructive and the microalgae are able to rebuild their colonies after extraction has finished." One minor drawback is the impurity of the matrix; polysaccharides must be purified from the extracted hydrocarbon solution. Fortunately, these molecules may be used in the creation of bioethanol but their concentration is low. It is hoped that this technology will improve biofuel production as an appropriate green energy source. This work may be found in the online BioMed Central journal, Biotechnology for Biofuels. Guionet, A., Hosseini, B., Teissié , J., Akiyama, H., & Hosseini, H. (2017). A new mechanism for efficient hydrocarbon electro-extraction from Botryococcus braunii. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(1), 39. DOI: 10.1186/s13068-017-0724-1


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: phys.org

a) This is a colony full of cells (red) with polysaccharides (yellow) and hydrocarbons (green) leaving the colony (x20); b) parts of colony tightly packed together (x60); c) colony full of cells (red) with dichotomial ramification of polysaccharides (yellow) and hydrocarbons leaving the colony (green) (x100); d) Single cell (x100 and numerically magnified).(Adapted from Guionet, A., Hosseini, B., Teissie, J., Akiyama, H., & Hosseini, H. (2017). A new mechanism for efficient hydrocarbon electro-extraction from Botryococcus braunii. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(1), 39. DOI: 10.1186/s13068-017-0724-1) Credit: Professor Hamid Hosseini As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, biodiesel extracted from microalgae is an increasingly important part of the bioenergy field. While it releases a similar amount of CO2 as petroleum when burned, the CO2 released from biodiesel is that which has recently been removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis meaning that it does not contribute to an increase of the greenhouse gas. Furthermore, research has shown that microalgae produces a much higher percentage of their biomass to usable oil in a significantly smaller land mass than terrestrial crops. Currently, one of the largest obstacles in replacing diesel with biodiesel is the cost of production. Fossil fuels are still cheaper than biofuels so improvements in production efficiency are highly sought-after. Recently, efforts have been made by researchers in Japan to reduce the cost of biodiesel production by using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to extract hydrocarbons from microalgae. A milli- or microsecond PEF is typically used to weaken cell walls and increase permeability allowing for extraction of elements inside the cell. Kumamoto University researchers, on the other hand, used a nanosecond PEF (nsPEF) to focus on the microalgae matrix instead of the cells. A nsPEF generally uses less energy than the μs/msPEFs even at high voltages, and is not as destructive or costly as the traditional drying method of oil extraction. The researchers performed several tests with the nsPEF on the microalgae Botryococcus braunii (Bb) to determine the optimal electric field, energy, and pulse repetition frequency for hydrocarbon extraction. Interestingly, it was found that doubling the energy only resulted in a 10% increase in hydrocarbon extraction. At 10 Hz, the optimal field and energy conditions were determined to be approximately 50 kV/cm and 55.6 J/ml respectively per volume of algae. Further, the researchers found that pulse frequency had little to no effect on extraction percentage, meaning that a large amount of hydrocarbons may be extracted quickly for large/industrial systems. "The advantage with this extraction mechanism is that it separates hydrocarbons from a matrix, rather than extracts them from cells. Other microalgae do not secrete a matrix so the cell membranes must be damaged or destroyed to get at the hydrocarbons, which both takes more energy and is less efficient than our method," said lead researcher, Professor Hamid Hosseini of the Institute of Pulsed Power Science at Kumamoto University. "On top of that, many extraction processes practiced today use a drying method to extract oil which ends in the destruction of the algae. Our method is relatively non-destructive and the microalgae are able to rebuild their colonies after extraction has finished." One minor drawback is the impurity of the matrix; polysaccharides must be purified from the extracted hydrocarbon solution. Fortunately, these molecules may be used in the creation of bioethanol but their concentration is low. It is hoped that this technology will improve biofuel production as an appropriate green energy source. This work may be found in the online BioMed Central journal, Biotechnology for Biofuels. Explore further: Microalgae have great potential as fish feed ingredient More information: Alexis Guionet et al, A new mechanism for efficient hydrocarbon electro-extraction from Botryococcus braunii, Biotechnology for Biofuels (2017). DOI: 10.1186/s13068-017-0724-1


Patent
Kumamoto University and Jnc Corporation | Date: 2016-10-04

A means for selectively removing ET under coexistence of a substance showing a negative charge, such as nucleic acid is described. Endotoxin is selectively removed by bringing a polymer obtained by crosslinking cyclodextrin with an isocyanate-based crosslinking agent in contact with a solution containing endotoxin and the substance showing the negative charge such as nucleic acid.


Patent
The Chemo Sero Therapeutic Research Institute and Kumamoto University | Date: 2016-12-07

A humanized antibody which comprises a complementarity determining region of an H chain consisting of the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NOs: 1 to 3 and a complementarity determining region of an L chain consisting of the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NOs: 4 to 6. The humanized antibody of the present invention has the activity to specifically bind to transthyretin (TTR) with structural change and the activity to inhibit fibrillization of TTR and is a humanized antibody suitable for application to human body.


Patent
Kumamoto University | Date: 2016-02-24

A method of manufacturing a flame-retardant magnesium alloy having mechanical properties of a long period stacking ordered magnesium alloy and having an ignition temperature of 800C or more is provided. The method of manufacturing a flame-retardant magnesium alloy comprises a step of melting a flame-retardant magnesium alloy which contains a atomic% of Zn, b atomic% of Y, x atomic% of Ca and a residue of Mg, and a, b and x satisfy formulae 1 to 4 below.


Patent
Kumamoto University | Date: 2016-02-24

A method of manufacturing a flame-retardant magnesium alloy having mechanical properties of a long period stacking ordered magnesium alloy and having an ignition temperature of 800C or more is provided. In the method of manufacturing a flame-retardant magnesium alloy, a flame-retardant magnesium alloy which contains a atomic% of Zn, b atomic% of at least one element selected from a group consisting of Gd, Tb, Tm and Lu, and x atomic% of Ca and in which a remaining part is formed of Mg and a, b and x satisfy Formulae 1 to 4 below is melted.


Provided is a method for detecting modifications present in RNA using small-volume RNA samples. Also provided is a method for detecting modifications in tRNA, such as thio methylation. Also provided is a method for diagnosing human type-II diabetes or the risk thereof, by detecting the thio methylation of tRNA. The present invention is characterized by the generation of cDNA by reverse transcription of RNA using a first primer, and comparing that quantity of cDNA with the quantity of cDNA generated by reverse transcription of RNA using a second primer, thereby detecting modifications (e.g. thio methylation) present in RNA in an RNA sample.

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