Hospital de Órbigo, Spain
Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

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Saruwatari J.,Kumamoto University | Ogusu N.,Kumamoto University | Shimomasuda M.,Kumamoto University | Nakashima H.,Kumamoto University | And 8 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Clobazam (CLB) is a 1,5-benzodiazepine with antiepileptic properties. More than 70% of administered CLB is dealkylated to yield N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB), a pharmacologically active metabolite, by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C19. The subsequent inactivation of N-CLB is primarily catalyzed by CYP2C19. Meanwhile, P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal CYP enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the CYP2C19 and POR genotypes on the pharmacokinetic parameters of CLB and N-CLB. METHODS: This retrospective study included 85 Japanese patients with epilepsy who were treated with CLB. CYP2C19*2, *3, and P450 oxidoreductase (POR) *28 (rs1057868C>T) polymorphisms were evaluated. A total of 128 steady-state concentrations for both CLB and N-CLB were collected from the patients. A nonlinear mixed-effects model identified the pharmacokinetics of CLB and N-CLB; the covariates included CYP2C19 and POR genotypes, weight, gender, daily CLB dose, and coadministered antiepileptic drugs. RESULTS: Among the 85 patients, the allele frequencies of CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and POR*28 were 27.6%, 12.9%, and 41.2%, respectively. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and/or elimination showed that the clearance of CLB and N-CLB was significantly lower by 18.1% and 84.9%, respectively, in the CYP2C19 poor metabolizers compared with the homozygous extensive metabolizers. The CLB clearance was 44% higher in subjects homozygous for the POR*28 T allele than in those homozygous for the POR*28 C allele, although the genotypes did not affect the N-CLB clearance. The concomitant use of phenobarbital, phenytoin, and zonisamide significantly affected the CLB clearance, whereas that of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid affected the N-CLB clearance. The weight also significantly influenced the CLB clearance and volume of distribution of both CLB and N-CLB. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the CYP2C19 and/or POR genotypes have an impact on the CLB and/or N-CLB clearance. These results suggest that determining the CYP2C19 and/or POR genotypes is helpful for obtaining appropriate serum CLB and N-CLB concentrations and preventing an overdose when starting CLB therapy. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Inoue Y.,Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders | Ohtsuka Y.,Okayama University of Science | Ikeda H.,Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders | Yoshinaga H.,Okayama University | And 13 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of stiripentol as add-on therapy in Japanese patients with Dravet syndrome treated with clobazam (CLB) and valproate (VPA). Methods: In this open-label study, patients aged 1-30 years entered a 4-week baseline phase, followed by a 4-week stiripentol dose-adjustment and 12-week fixed-dose phase. The primary efficacy endpoint was responder rate (proportion of patients with a ≥50% reduction from baseline phase in clonic or tonic-clonic seizure frequency over the last 4 weeks of fixed-dose treatment [target phase]). Safety and pharmacokinetics were also assessed. Key findings: Of 27 patients screened in the baseline phase, 24 patients entered the dose-adjustment phase. All patients completed the study. Responder rate was 66.7% (16/24, 95% CI: 44.7-84.4%), and four patients became free from clonic or tonic-clonic seizures. The duration of clonic or tonic-clonic seizures was also significantly reduced in the target versus baseline phase. The most frequent adverse events were somnolence, anorexia, ataxia, nasopharyngitis and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase increase, all of which were of mild-to-moderate severity. Stiripentol plasma concentration in the fixed-dose phase was 4-25. μg/mL. After adding stiripentol to CLB and VPA, the minimum plasma concentrations of CLB and N-desmethyl-CLB (NCLB) increased and that of 4'-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-CLB(OH-NCLB) decreased, while those of VPA and bromide (optionally used) were not affected. Significance: Add-on stiripentol to CLB and VPA was well tolerated and significantly decreased clonic or tonic-clonic seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Esaki T.,Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society | Year: 2011

A 69-year-old asymptomatic woman was admitted because of an abnormal chest shadow. Chest X-ray films showed a tumorous shadow behind the heart. Chest CT scans showed an aberrant artery branching from the thoracic aorta and supplying the left basal segment, but the bronchial tree was normal. The left lung vein was normal but wide, and the left lower pulmonary artery could not be observed. Based on these findings, we diagnosed anomalous systemic arterial supply to the normal basal segment of the left lower lobe. Because this patient had a high risk of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension, we decided to perform a left lower lobectomy, but she refused the operation. As this disease is generally found in younger patients, diagnosis in older age, as in the present case, is rare. In this report we also summarize 39 other reports of this disease in Japan.

Saruwatari J.,Kumamoto University | Ishitsu T.,Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital | Nakagawa K.,Kumamoto University
Pharmaceuticals | Year: 2010

Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed. +ACY-copy; 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Kato T.,Kumamoto University | Hamada A.,Kumamoto University | Mori S.,Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital | Saito H.,Kumamoto University
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic and cellular transport pathway of methotrexate (MTX) on the clinical outcome of MTX monotherapy in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Fifty-five patients were treated with MTX monotherapy at a dose of 410 mg/week. The total concentration of MTX-polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) was measured at steady-state in red blood cells (RBCs) by high performance liquid chromatography. The genotype at 16 polymorphic sites in 11 genes (ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2, RFC1, PCFT, SLCO1B1, MTHFR, GGH, ATIC, MTR, and MTRR) was analyzed. No significant association between the total concentration of MTX-PGs in RBCs and clinical outcome was found. However, patients with the ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a significantly lower mean disease activity score (DAS) 28 than did patients with the ABCB1 3435CC genotype (p = 0.02). Similarly, patients with the ABCB1 2677AA/AT/TT genotypes had a significantly lower mean DAS28 than did patients with the ABCB1 2677GG/GA/GT genotypes (p = 0.04). The patients with the MTHFR 1298AA genotype had a significantly lower mean DAS28 than those with the MTHFR 1298AC/CC genotypes (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the ABCB1 3435C>T, ABCB1 2677G>A/T, and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms influenced the efficacy of MTX monotherapy. © 2012 by the Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (JSSX).

PubMed | Kumamoto University and Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 plays a role in the biotransformation of clinically relevant drugs as well as endogenous compounds, including sex hormones, which are known to be modulators of food intake and energy balance in humans. We attempted to investigate the influence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on valproic acid (VPA)-induced weight gain.This retrospective longitudinal study included 85 VPA-treated and 93 carbamazepine (CBZ)-treated (as a reference) young patients with epilepsy. The body mass index (BMI) gap between the patients BMI and the cutoff value for being overweight was calculated in each patient during the follow-up period. The longitudinal associations of the CYP2C19 genotype with the BMI gap and risk for becoming overweight during VPA or CBZ therapy were examined retrospectively using the generalized estimating equations approach and the Kaplan-Meier method.During the follow-up period, the values of the BMI gap were significantly greater (P = 0.002 or P = 0.005) and the cumulative incidence of becoming overweight tended to be higher (P = 0.032) in the VPA-treated female patients with one or two loss-of-function CYP2C19 alleles than in the females without the loss-of-function CYP2C19 alleles. No associations were observed among the VPA-treated male patients and CBZ-treated male and female patients (P > 0.05).This is the first report to show a relationship between the CYP2C19 polymorphism and VPA-induced weight gain in female patients with epilepsy. Further investigations are needed to verify these findings.

PubMed | Kumamoto University, Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital and Hirosaki University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of epileptic seizures. Although it is well known that the doses of VPA and its plasma concentrations are highly correlated, the plasma concentrations do not correlate well with the therapeutic effects of the VPA. In this study, we developed a population-based pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model to determine the optimal concentration of VPA according to the clinical characteristics of each patient. This retrospective study included 77 VPA-treated Japanese patients with epilepsy. A nonlinear mixed-effects model best represented the relationship between the trough concentrations of VPA at steady-state and an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency. The model was fitted using a logistic regression model, in which the logit function of the probability was a linear function of the predicted trough concentration of VPA. The model showed that the age, seizure locus, the sodium channel neuronal type I alpha subunit rs3812718 polymorphism and co-administration of carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin or topiramate were associated with an over 50% reduction in the seizure frequency. We plotted the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the logit(Pr) value of the model and the presence or absence of a more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency, and the areas under the curves with the 95% confidence interval from the ROC curve were 0.823 with 0.793-0.853. A logit(Pr) value of 0.1 was considered the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 71.8% and specificity = 80.4%), and we calculated the optimal trough concentration of VPA for each patient. Such parameters may be useful to determine the recommended therapeutic concentration of VPA for each patient, and the procedure may contribute to the further development of personalized pharmacological therapy for epilepsy.

PubMed | Kumamoto University, Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital and Hirosaki University
Type: | Journal: Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment | Year: 2015

Although patients with moderate intellectual disability (ID) are known to have higher rates of being overweight and obese than those without ID, there are no current data regarding the relationship between ID and weight gain in epilepsy patients treated with valproic acid (VPA).The possible association between moderate ID and an overweight status at the time of initiation of VPA therapy (baseline) was investigated using a logistic regression analysis in 143 patients with epilepsy. Among the 119 nonoverweight patients at baseline, the longitudinal association between moderate ID and the weight status during VPA therapy was retrospectively examined using a Cox hazards regression analysis and the generalized estimating equations approach, while also paying careful attention to associations with other patient characteristics.The proportion of patients with moderate ID was 52.4% among the 143 study subjects. The presence of moderate ID was not associated with an overweight status at baseline (P=0.762). Among the nonoverweight patients at baseline, 16 subjects were newly diagnosed as being overweight during treatment with VPA (3.62.1 years). The presence of moderate ID was significantly associated with the incidence of an overweight status after starting VPA therapy (adjusted hazard ratio =6.72, P=0.007). The patient age at baseline and treatment with co-administered carbamazepine, clobazam, and zonisamide significantly influenced the degree of weight fluctuation during VPA therapy among the patients with moderate ID (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.002, and P=0.028, respectively), whereas only patient age at baseline affected this parameter among the patients without moderate ID (P=0.022).The present findings suggest that the weight status should be carefully monitored in VPA-treated patients with moderate ID, especially those receiving other co-administered antiepileptic drugs that facilitate weight gain, such as carbamazepine.

PubMed | Kumamoto University, Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital and Chemo Sero Therapeutic Research Institute KAKETSUKEN
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society | Year: 2016

In the prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity is measured with fetal cells, and gene analysis is performed when pathogenic mutations in GBA are identified in advance. Herein is described prenatal diagnosis in a family in which two children had GD. Although prior genetic information for this GD family was not obtained, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for this family because immediate prenatal diagnosis was necessary. Three mutations were identified in this GD family. The father had one mutation in intron 3 (IVS2+1), the mother had two mutations in exons 3 (I[-20]V) and 5 (M85T), and child 1 had all three of these mutations; child 3 had none of these mutations. On NGS the present fetus (child 3) was not a carrier of GD-related mutations. NGS may facilitate early detection and treatment before disease onset.

There has been accumulating evidence that there are associations among -glutamyltransferase (-GT) elevation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the most common and potentially functional polymorphisms of antioxidant enzyme genes, i.e. superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione S-transferase M1 and glutathione S-transferase T1, on the -GT elevation during valproic acid (VPA) therapy.This retrospective study included 237 and 169 VPA-treated Japanese patients with epilepsy for population pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses, respectively. A nonlinear mixed-effect model represented the pharmacokinetics of VPA and the relationships between VPA exposure and -GT elevation. A one-compartment model of the pharmacokinetic parameters of VPA adequately described the data; while the model for the probability of the -GT elevation was fitted using a logistic regression model, in which the logit function of the probability was a linear function of VPA exposure. The SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism and complication with intellectual disability were found to be significant covariates influencing the intercept of the logit function for the probability of an elevated -GT level. The predicted mean percentages of the subjects with -GT elevation were about 2- to 3-fold, 3- to 4-fold and 4- to 8-fold greater in patients with the SOD2 Val/Val genotype but without any intellectual disability, those with the SOD2 Val/Ala or Ala/Ala genotype and intellectual disability and those with the SOD2 Val/Val genotype and intellectual disability, respectively, compared to those with the SOD2 Val/Ala or Ala/Ala genotype without intellectual disability.Our results showed that the SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism has an impact on the relationship between VPA exposure and -GT elevation in patients with epilepsy. These results suggest that determining the SOD2 genotype could be helpful for preventing the VPA-induced -GT elevation.

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