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Komatsu M.,Tenri University | Sueyoshi N.,JCHO Shiga Hospital | Maeda M.,Hoshigaoka Medical Center | Uchida T.,Saitama Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

We surveyed the status of community-acquired infections involving four extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis) isolated from clinical specimens from 11 social insurance hospitals in Japan in 2012. These are member hospitals of the Japan Community Healthcare Organization, an independent administrative hospital organization. The isolation rates for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and P. mirabilis were 14.0% (165/1176), 3.3% (16/480), 3.1% (4/130), and 15.9% (17/107), respectively. The CTX-M-9 group, the most frequently detected genotype, was found in 77.0% (127/165) of E. coli and 43.8% (7/16) of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among K. oxytoca isolates, 75% (3/4) were the CTX-M-1 group, and all 17 P. mirabilis strains were the CTX-M-2 group. ESBL-producing bacteria isolation rates in each hospital ranged from 5.8% to 21.5% (median 9.5%), and the proportion of community-acquired infections among ESBL-producing bacteria isolates ranged from 1.6% to 30.8% (median 11.4%) in each hospital. Overall, the rates of ESBL-producing bacterial infection in all community-acquired infections and in all hospital infections were 10.6% (115/1081) and 10.7% (87/812), respectively. The ESBL-producing bacteria are not limited to certain regions or hospitals but are spreading in communities throughout Japan. © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Source

Sakamoto T.,Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center | Ogawa H.,Kumamoto University | Nakao K.,Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center | Hokimoto S.,Kumamoto University | And 39 more authors.
Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular protective effects of candesartan in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DESs). Background: Candesartan has been reported to reduce cardiovascular events when therapy was started 6 months after PCI with bare-metal stents in patients who survived restenosis. Candesartan started immediately after PCI with DESs was also effective in preventing cardiovascular events. Methods: The 4C trial was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study. A total of 1145 patients at 39 centers in Japan were randomly assigned to receive candesartan plus standard medical treatment or standard medical treatment alone. The primary endpoints were all-cause death, and a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina pectoris (uAP), congestive heart failure (CHF), and non-fatal cerebrovascular events. The follow-up period was up to 3 years after the index PCI (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00139386). Results: The incidence of total death, one of the primary endpoints, was comparable between the two treatment groups (3.8% each, p = 0.9702). Another primary endpoint, non-fatal major cardiovascular events, tended to occur more often in the control group than in the candesartan group (9.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0985). In contrast, candesartan significantly reduced one of the pre-specified secondary endpoints: cardiovascular events that included non-fatal MI, uAP, and CHF (4.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.0136). Furthermore, candesartan significantly reduced another secondary endpoint that included cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death (5.0% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.0493). Conclusions: The 4C trial showed that candesartan administered immediately after PCI with DESs did not improve the prognosis after the index procedure, but did reduce some cardiac-related events for 3 years. © 2015. Source

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