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Moscow, Russia

Dorozhkin S.V.,Kudrinskaja sq. 1 155
Ceramics International | Year: 2015

Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse inorganic substances but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate (CaPO4)-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the CaPO4-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now CaPO4-based scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are usually porous and harbor various biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of CaPO4-based bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because CaPO4 appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


Dorozhkin S.V.,Kudrinskaja sq. 1 155
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2013

Due to the chemical similarity with human bones and teeth, calcium orthophosphates are the inorganic substances of a special importance for the human being: they appear to be the excellent compounds to construct artificial bone grafts. In addition, calcium orthophosphates are necessary for both animals and plants as the source of important chemical elements. Obviously, these facts have not become apparent immediately; thus, providing the detailed annals of the knowledge development on the subject is the purpose of this review. The chosen time scale started with the earliest available studies of 1770s (to the best of my findings, calcium orthophosphates had been unknown before), passed through the entire 19th century and finished in 1950, because since then the amount of publications rapidly increased and the subject became too broad. In addition, since publications of the second half of the 20th century are easily accessible, other scientists have already reviewed the substantial amount of them. Many forgotten and poorly known historical facts, names, approaches, concepts and misconceptions have been extracted from the old publications. To maximize objectivity, an extensive quotation has been used. Then the old data have been systematized, reanalyzed and reconsidered from the modern points of view. The reported historical findings clearly demonstrate that many famous scientists of the past contributed to the subject. Furthermore, the significant quantity of the modern scientific facts, ideas and experimental approaches appear to have been known for very many decades and, in fact, a good deal of the recent investigations on calcium orthophosphates is just either a further development of the earlier studies or a rediscovery of the already forgotten knowledge. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Dorozhkin S.V.,Kudrinskaja sq. 1 155
Materials | Year: 2013

Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells. © 2013 by the authors. Source


Dorozhkin S.V.,Kudrinskaja sq. 1 155
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2013

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Dorozhkin S.V.,Kudrinskaja sq. 1 155
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2014

Biodegradable metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Of these metals, magnesium (Mg) and its biodegradable alloys appear to be particularly attractive candidates due to their non-toxicity and as their mechanical properties match those of bones better than other metals do. Being light, biocompatible and biodegradable, Mg-based metallic implants have several advantages over other implantable metals currently in use, such as eliminating both the effects of stress shielding and the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Unfortunately, the fast degradation rates of Mg and its biodegradable alloys in the aggressive physiological environment impose limitations on their clinical applications. This necessitates development of implants with controlled degradation rates to match the kinetics of bone healing. Application of protective but biocompatible and biodegradable coatings able to delay the onset of Mg corrosion appears to be a reasonable solution. Since calcium orthophosphates are well tolerated by living organisms, they appear to be the excellent candidates for such coatings. Nevertheless, both the high chemical reactivity and the low melting point of Mg require specific parameters for successful deposition of calcium orthophosphate coatings. This review provides an overview of current coating techniques used for deposition of calcium orthophosphates on Mg and its biodegradable alloys. The literature analysis revealed that in all cases the calcium orthophosphate protective coatings both increased the corrosion resistance of Mg-based metallic biomaterials and improved their surface biocompatibility. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. Source

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