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Pang L.Y.,Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine | Scott M.,Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine | Mohammed H.,Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine | Whitelaw C.B.A.,Roslin Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2011

The regulation of p53 activity through the MDM2 negative feedback loop is driven in part by an extrinsic ATM-pulse that maintains p53 oscillations in response to DNA damage. We report here that the p53 pathway has evolved an intrinsic positive feedback loop that is maintained by the p53-inducible gene product p21WAF1. p21-null cancer cells have defects in p53 protein turnover, reductions in MDM2-mediated degradation of p53, and reduced DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of p53. TLR3-IRF1 or ATM-dependent signaling to p53 is defective in p21-null cells and complementation of the p21 gene in p21-null cancer cells restores the p53 transcriptional response. The mechanism of p53 inactivity in p21-null cells is linked to a p53 protein equilibrium shift from chromatin into cytosolic fractions and complementation of the p21 gene into p21-null cells restores the nuclear localization of p53. A loss of p53 transcriptional function in murine B-cells heterozygous or homozygous null for p21 highlights a p21-gene dosage effect that maintains the full p53 transcriptional response. ATM inhibition results in nuclear exclusion of p53 highlighting a positive genetic interaction between ATM and p21. p21 protein oscillates in undamaged proliferating cells, and reductions of p21 protein using siRNA eliminate the DNA damage-induced p53 pulse. The p53 transcription program has evolved a negative feedback loop maintained by MDM2 that is counteracted by a positive feedback loop maintained by ATM-p21 the balance of which controls the specific activity of p53 as a transcription factor. © 2011 Landes Bioscience. Source


Sabharwal A.,University of Oxford | Corrie P.G.,Oncology Center | Midgley R.S.,University of Oxford | Palmer C.,Oncology Center | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Background: Expression of the DNA repair protein O 6- methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) correlates with resistance to irinotecan in colorectal cancer cell lines. This phase I study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lomeguatrib, an inactivating pseudosubstrate of MGMT, in combination with irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and assessed the safety, toxicity and clinical pharmacology of combination treatment. Patients and methods: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received lomeguatrib (10-80 mg PO) on days 1-5 with irinotecan (250-350 mg/m2 IV) on day 4 of a 21-day cycle. Results: Twenty-four patients, pre-treated with a median of 2 lines of chemotherapy, received 104 cycles of treatment. The MTD was defined as 80 mg/day lomeguatrib with 300 mg/m 2 irinotecan. The main toxicities observed were neutropaenia and diarrhoea. Lomeguatrib of 80 mg/day produced complete MGMT depletion in all available peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and paired tumour biopsies (one patient). There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between the drugs. In 22 patients assessable for tumour response, one achieved a partial response and 16 had stable disease. Conclusion: This study defined a tolerable dose of irinotecan in combination with lomeguatrib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Combination treatment gave a similar response rate to irinotecan monotherapy in this heavily pre-treated patient group. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source


Williamson C.T.,University of Calgary | Muzik H.,University of Calgary | Turhan A.G.,University of Poitiers | Zamo A.,University of Verona | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is altered in several human cancers including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we characterize a panel of MCL cell lines for ATM status and function and investigate the potential for synthetic lethality in MCL in the presence of small-molecule inhibitors of PARP-1. We show that Granta-519 and UPN2 cells have low levels of ATM protein, are defective in DNA damage-induced ATM-dependent signaling, are radiation sensitive, and have cell cycle checkpoint defects: all characteristics of defective ATM function. Significantly, Granta-519 and UPN2 cells were more sensitive to PARP-1 inhibition than were the ATM-proficient MCL cell lines examined. Furthermore, the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (known previously as AZD2281/KU-0059436) significantly decreased tumor growth and increased overall survival in mice bearing s.c. xenografts of ATM-deficient Granta-519 cells while producing only a modest effect on overall survival of mice bearing xenografts of the ATM-proficient cell line, Z138. Thus, PARP inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of MCL, and the concept of synthetic lethality extends to human cancers with ATM alterations. ©2010 AACR. Source


Khan O.A.,University of Oxford | Gore M.,Royal Marsden Hospital | Lorigan P.,Christie Hospital | Stone J.,Kudos Pharmaceuticals | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is essential in cellular processing of DNA damage via the base excision repair pathway (BER). The PARP inhibition can be directly cytotoxic to tumour cells and augments the anti-tumour effects of DNA-damaging agents. This study evaluated the optimally tolerated dose of olaparib (4-(3 - 4-fluorophenyl) methyl-1(2H)-one; AZD2281, KU0059436), a potent PARP inhibitor, with dacarbazine and assessed safety, toxicity, clinical pharmacokinetics and efficacy of combination treatment.Patients and methods:Patients with advanced cancer received olaparib (20-200 mg PO) on days 1-7 with dacarbazine (600-800 mg m -2 IV) on day 1 (cycle 2, day 2) of a 21-day cycle. An expansion cohort of chemonaive melanoma patients was treated at an optimally tolerated dose. The BER enzyme, methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and its substrate 7-methylguanine were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: The optimal combination to proceed to phase II was defined as 100 mg bd olaparib with 600 mg m 2 dacarbazine. Dose-limiting toxicities were neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia. There were two partial responses, both in patients with melanoma. Conclusion: This study defined a tolerable dose of olaparib in combination with dacarbazine, but there were no responses in chemonaive melanoma patients, demonstrating no clinical advantage over single-agent dacarbazine at these doses. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source


Jaspers J.E.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Kersbergen A.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Boon U.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Sol W.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 17 more authors.
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2013

Inhibition of PARP is a promising therapeutic strategy for homologous recombination-deficient tumors, such as BRCA1-associated cancers. We previously reported that BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary tumors may acquire resistance to the clinical PARP inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib through activation of the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter. Here, we show that tumor-specific genetic inactivation of P-glycoprotein increases the long-term response of BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary tumors to olaparib, but these tumors eventually developed PARPi resistance. In a fraction of cases, this resistance is caused by partial restoration of homologous recombination due to somatic loss of 53BP1. Importantly, PARPi resistance was minimized by long-term treatment with the novel PARP inhibitor AZD2461, which is a poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Together, our data suggest that restoration of homologous recombination is an important mechanism for PARPi resistance in BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors and that the risk of relapse of BRCA1-deficient tumors can be effectively minimized by using optimized PARP inhibitors. © 2012 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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