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Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Phenytoin (PHT) is a common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Although HLA-B*15:02 is associated with PHT-induced SJS/TEN (PHT-SJS/TEN) in Han Chinese and Thais, the genetic basis for susceptibility to PHT-induced SCARs (PHT-SCAR) in other populations remains unclear. We performed a case–control association study by genotyping the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B alleles of 16 Malay PHT-SCAR patients (13 SJS/TEN and 3 DRESS), 32 PHT-tolerant controls and 300 healthy ethnicity-matched controls. A novel genetic biomarker, HLA-B*15:13, showed significant association with PHT-SJS/TEN (53.8%, 7/13 cases) (odds ratio (OR) 11.28, P=0.003) and PHT-DRESS (100%, 3/3 cases) (OR 59.00, P=0.003) when compared with PHT-tolerant controls (9.4%, 3/32 controls). We also confirmed HLA-B*15:02 association with PHT-SJS/TEN (61.5%, 8/13 cases vs 21.9%, 7/32 controls; OR 5.71, P=0.016) when compared with PHT-tolerant controls. These alleles may serve as markers to predict PHT-SCAR in Malays.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 1 March 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.10. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Mydin A.R.,Kuala Lumpur Hospital | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Finn M.A.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Armstrong J.G.,St Lukes Hospital
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA >10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. Results: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS1 at 10 years was 78% in group 1, 42% in group 2, and 29% in group 3. The OS2 also differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS2 at 6 years was 70% in group 1, 47% in group 2, and 22% in group 3. Group 1 had the longest median time from end of RT to biochemical failure compared with groups 2 and 3 (3.3, 0.9, and 1.7 years, respectively; P<.0005). Group 1 also had the longest median PSA doubling time compared with groups 2 and 3 (9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months, respectively; P<.0005). On multivariate analysis, timing of salvage HT, time from end of RT to biochemical failure, and PSA nadir on salvage HT were significant predictors of survival. Conclusion: Early salvage HT based on PSA ≤10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases improved survival in patients with prostate cancer after failure of initial treatment with neoadjuvant HT plus RT. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Viswanathan S.,Kuala Lumpur Hospital
Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) | Year: 2015

We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a wasted tongue associated with other brainstem symptoms of hypogeusia, hypersalivation, hiccough, increased sweating, hyperemesis and myelitis (in the second patient). This occurred due to involvement of the hypoglossal, tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal nuclei. Though the myelitis and other brainstem signs recovered the hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a unilateral wasted tongue did not. It is important to consider neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders in the differential diagnosis of a wasted tongue though its occurrence is rare. © The Author(s), 2014. Source

Anas S.S.,Kuala Lumpur Hospital | Vasikaran S.D.,University of Western Australia
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Background: Measurement of plasma-free metanephrine plus normetanephrine (PFM) is the best screening test for phaeochromocytoma. While clearly raised levels are diagnostic, borderline increases may be associated with factors such as stress and medications, and should prompt a repeat study after interfering factors are withdrawn. Methods: PFM results reported by a teaching hospital laboratory over a 12-month period were extracted from the laboratory information system. All borderline raised results were examined for a subsequent repeat test (as recommended by attached interpretative comment) and those not repeated were followed up by examination of case-notes or questionnaires to doctors. Results: Of 111 patients with borderline increased PFM which did not normalize on repeat measurement, 33 were from the hospital and 78 from outside locations. Hospital notes for 27 out of 33 hospital-patients (82%) could be reviewed, and 49 completed questionnaires (63% of 78 sent out) were received from outside locations. Of these 76 patients thus followed up, the test was not repeated in 55 (72%) cases with borderline increased PFM. Of 10 patients with an adrenal mass and borderline PFM, only three had PFM repeated. Of another nine patients with undetermined final diagnosis and borderline PFM, only three had the test repeated. Conclusion: Seventy-two per cent of borderline increased PFM results were not followed up with appropriate repeat testing, potentially leading to missed detection of phaeochromocytoma. A stronger interpretative comment may encourage appropriate repeat testing in more cases with borderline increased PFM and suspected phaeochromocytoma. Source

Tan T.H.,National Cancer Institute | Hassan S.Z.A.,Kuala Lumpur Hospital
Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2015

We reported a rare finding of isolated pericardial uptake detected by SPECT/CT on posttherapeutic radioiodine whole body scan. This case highlights the usefulness of hybrid SPECT/CT, with subsequent correlation with biochemical results, in ruling out metastatic pericardial effusion in the postsurgical radioiodine remnant ablation setting. The effusion was resolved after reinstituted thyroid replacement therapy. Recombinant thyrotropin is recommended to avoid such rare but life-threatening complication. © 2015, Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine. Source

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