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Honolulu, HI, United States

Feleppa E.J.,Riverside Research Institute | Mamou J.,Riverside Research Institute | Porter C.R.,Virginia Mason Medical Center | MacHi J.,Kuakini Medical Center
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2011

Ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive, portable, and versatile imaging modality that has a broad range of clinical uses. It incorporates many imaging modes, such as conventional gray-scale "B-mode" imaging to display echo amplitude in a scanned plane; M-mode imaging to track motion at a given fixed location over time; duplex, color, and power Doppler imaging to display motion in a scanned plane; harmonic imaging to display nonlinear responses to incident ultrasound; elastographic imaging to display relative tissue stiffness; and contrast-agent imaging with simple contrast agents to display blood-filled spaces or with targeted agents to display specific agent-binding tissue types. These imaging modes have been well described in the scientific, engineering, and clinical literature. A less well-known ultrasonic imaging technology is based on quantitative ultrasound (QUS), which analyzes the distribution of power as a function of frequency in the original received echo signals from tissue and exploits the resulting spectral parameters to characterize and distinguish among tissues. This article discusses the attributes of QUS-based methods for imaging cancers and providing improved means of detecting and assessing tumors. The discussion will include applications to imaging primary prostate cancer and metastatic cancer in lymph nodes to illustrate the methods. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Berg D.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Marek K.,Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders | Ross G.W.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Ross G.W.,Kuakini Medical Center | Poewe W.,University of Innsbruck
Movement Disorders | Year: 2012

It is currently widely acknowledged that the natural history of PD includes a preclinical phase, and there are increasing efforts to identify markers that would allow the identification of individuals at risk for PD. Here, we discuss the issues related to defining at-risk populations for PD and review findings of current population-based cohorts that have reported potential biomarkers for PD, such as the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the PRIPS (Prospective Validation of Risk factors for the development of Parkinson Syndromes) study. We also discuss enriched risk cohorts designed to evaluate specificity and predictive value of markers exemplified by the PARS (Parkinson Associated Risk Study) and the TREND (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for the Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) study. Although there is still a long way to go, studies designed according to these concepts might eventually provide sufficient data to form the basis for future screening programs for PD risk to be applied at a population level. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

Imperatore G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Boyle J.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Thompson T.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dabelea D.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - To forecast the number of U.S. individuals aged <20 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through 2050, accounting for changing demography and diabetes incidence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used Markov modeling framework to generate yearly forecasts of the number of individuals in each of three states (diabetes, no diabetes, and death). We used 2001 prevalence and 2002 incidence of T1DM and T2DM from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study and U.S. Census Bureau population demographic projections. Two scenarios were considered for T1DM and T2DM incidence: 1) constant incidence over time; 2) for T1DMyearly percentage increases of 3.5, 2.2, 1.8, and 2.1%by age-groups 0-4years,5-9years,10-14 years, and 15-19 years, respectively, and for T2DM a yearly 2.3% increase across all ages. RESULTS-Under scenario 1, the projected number of youth with T1DM rises from 166,018 to 203,382 and with T2DM from 20,203 to 30,111, respectively, in 2010 and 2050. Under scenario 2, the number of youth with T1DM nearly triples from 179,388 in 2010 to 587,488 in 2050 (prevalence 2.13/1,000 and 5.20/1,000 [+144% increase]), with the greatest increase in youth of minority racial/ethnic groups. The number of youth with T2DM almost quadruples from 22,820 in 2010 to 84,131 in 2050; prevalence increases from 0.27/1,000 to 0.75/1,000 (+178% increase). CONCLUSIONS - A linear increase in diabetes incidence could result in a substantial increase in the number of youth with T1DM and T2DM over the next 40 years, especially those ofminority race/ethnicity. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Carnes B.A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Staats D.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Willcox B.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Willcox B.J.,Kuakini Medical Center
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States. © The Author 2013.

The invention provides methods and compositions relating to identification and use of genetic information from the FOXO3A gene that can be used for determining and increasing an individuals likelihood of longevity and of retaining physical and cognitive function during aging, and for determining and decreasing an individuals likelihood of developing a cardiovascular-, metabolic- or age-related disease, including coronary artery (heart) disease, stroke, cancer, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, Parkinsons disease and dementia.

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