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Kumaran D.S.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2014

Experiments were conducted to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha Curcas oil (CJCO) having high free fatty acid content (6.85%) in two steps. During the first step, the free fatty acid content of CJCO was reduced to 1.12% in 1 hour at 60°C, using 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1%w/w of oil of H 2SO4. The second step was alkali catalyzed transesterification of pretreated CJCO to produce biodiesel and the factors affecting the biodiesel yield were optimized using response surface methodology. The effect of five level-three factors and their reciprocal interactions on biodiesel yield were studied. A total of 20 experiments were designed and conducted to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and oil to methanol ratio on biodiesel yield. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted and found adequate with R2 of 0.9722. The model predicted that the highest yield of methyl ester would be 93.55% at the following optimized conditions: reaction temperature of 61.5°C, alkali catalyst of 0.58% w/w of oil and an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:5.93. Using these optimal factors under experimental conditions in three independent replicates, an average of 92.5 ± 0.5% yield was achieved and the value was well within the range predicted by the model. © Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Lavanya G.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology | Kumar C.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology | Kumar C.,Anna University | Arokiaraj A.R.M.,Anna University
2010 International Conference on Signal Acquisition and Processing, ICSAP 2010 | Year: 2010

Adhoc mobile networks are very dynamic, self organizing, self healing distributed networks which support data networking without an infrastructure. The user can use the network services efficiently and securely while moving, by using our proposed protocol. This protocol is used to store secured backup routes from multiple routes available between source and destination, in order to provide the next possible route immediately when the link fails during the data transmission. Furthermore, it incorporates security attributes as parameters into Adhoc route discovery. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Durairaj S.K.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2011

In order to optimize reaction parameters of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid Jatropha curcas oil by alkali catalyst-based transesterification process, response surface methodology involving central composite design was applied. The effect of five-level three factors and their reciprocal interactions were studied. A total of 20 experiments were conducted and designed to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst quantity, and methanol to oil molar ratio on the biodiesel yield. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted and found adequate with R2 of 0.9879. The model predicted that the highest yield of methyl ester would be 81.93% at the following optimized conditions: reaction temperature of 61C, alkali catalyst of 2.06% w/w of oil, and methanol to oil molar ratio of 7.28:1. Using these optimal factors under experimental conditions in three independent replicates, an average of 80.32 ± 0.82% yield was achieved and the value was well within the range predicted by the model. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kumaran D.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology
Distributed Generation and Alternative Energy Journal | Year: 2011

Crude Jatropha Curcas Oil (CJCO) obtained from the seeds grown in the Western Ghat section of South India was investigated for biodiesel production using one step alkali catalyzed transesterification. The reactions were conducted at 400 rpm agitation rate for 1 hour. Different methanol to oil molar ratios (5.5:1, 6:1, 6.75:1, 7.5:1 and 8:1), catalyst to oil ratios (1.43, 1.68, 1.85, 2.1, 2.35 and 2.52 %w/w of oil) and reaction temperatures (50°C to 70°C) were employed to investigate their effect on biodiesel yield. The maximum yield of 80.5% was obtained at the optimum methanol to oil molar ratio of 7.5:1, catalyst to oil ratio of 2.09%w/w of oil and reaction temperature 60°C. The physiochemical properties of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standards. The reason for the low yield was observed as the high free fatty acid content (13.7 mg KOH/g of oil) in the Crude Jatropha Curcas oil. A biodiesel fueled four-stroke diesel engine-generator set yielded an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 24.38% at maximum load condition, thus showing the possibility of utilization of CJCO derived fuel in diesel engines. Source


Durairaj S.K.,KTVR Knowledge Park for Engineering and Technology
Energy and Environment | Year: 2012

Biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is becoming increasingly important. The biodiesel quality and yield are affected by the properties of the oil used. The properties of the oil vary from region to region depending on the nature of the soil in which oil crops are cultivated, agricultural practices, rainfall etc. In this study the raw oil from Jatropha Curcas seeds grown in the western Ghat section of South India was tested for its physiochemical properties to determine its suitability for biodiesel production. A bench scale, compact biodiesel processor was developed locally by the authors and biodiesel was produced from raw Jatropha Curcas oil using alkali based transesterification process. The physiochemical properties of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standards but the yield was comparatively low (80%v/v) because of the high free fatty acid content (13.7 mg KOH/g of oil) in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The brake thermal efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine coupled with an electric generator (34.19%) at maximum load conditions shows the possibility of utilization of biodiesel produced as a fuel in the diesel engine. Source

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