KTH Royal Institute of Technology

www.kth.se/en
Stockholm, Sweden

The Royal Institute of Technology is a university in Stockholm, Sweden. KTH was founded in 1827 as Sweden's first polytechnic and is one of Scandinavia's largest institutions of higher education in technology. KTH accounts for one-third of Sweden's technical research and engineering education capacity at university level. KTH offers programmes leading to a Master of Architecture, Master of Science in Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, licentiate or doctoral degree. The university also offers a technical preparatory programme for non-scientists and further education.There are a total of just over 14 000 full-year equivalent undergraduate students, more than 1700 active postgraduate students and 4600 full-time-equivalent employees. KTH is one of the leading technical universities in Europe and highly respected worldwide, especially in the domains of technology and natural science. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Professor Björn Ottersten, Director of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT) at the University of Luxembourg, has been awarded an Advanced Grant (AdG), the most prestigious award offered by the European Research Council (ERC). Professor Ottersten will receive 2.5 million Euros in funding over the next five years. He will use the grant to develop a novel overarching technical framework that could be used to simplify the design and operation of complex systems in different areas such as automotive radar, caching, and wireless networks. This is the second ERC Advanced Grant to be awarded to Luxembourg-based researchers, with both recipients at SnT. Many automated systems, such as parking assist systems in cars, process data acquired from sensors and make decisions autonomously based on machine learning, a sub-field of artificial intelligence. However, such systems can be enhanced using mathematical models. For example, in parking assist systems, a mathematical model provides methods for focussing the scan area around the vehicle to obtain reliable data about the scene. The intelligent algorithms will then better recognise from the sensor data that there is, for example, a bin and a person nearby. The model will automatically focus attention on the person as the critical element. Currently, such models are developed on a case-by-case basis - a time-consuming process. But Ottersten's research will provide a framework to streamline their development. Hence, AGNOSTIC, the name of his research project, stands for Actively Enhanced Cognition based Framework for Design of Complex Systems. Ideas about a general system have been floating around for a few years, but there is no comprehensive framework to date. Creating a system that will be applicable to many different areas will allow developers to leverage the framework to design efficient systems in different domains. To build this grand structure, SnT will bolster its in-house expertise by hiring additional experts and working closely with a research partner, KTH in Stockholm. The groundwork has already started, with SnT scientists conducting basic studies and testing theories on a smaller scale in their research lab together with SnT research partners SES and IEE. AGNOSTIC will kick into high gear in October 2017, when a team of about ten experts has been put together. ERC Advanced Grants are awarded to active researchers who need long-term funding to pursue a ground-breaking, high-risk research project. These grants are very competitive, as only less than ten percent of applications are approved. Professor Björn Ottersten is honoured to receive funding for his research endeavours: "Thanks to the strong support of the FNR and our research partners SES and IEE, I was able to quickly assemble a world-class research team in Signal Processing when I arrived in Luxembourg. The size and duration of the ERC AdG allows us to address some fundamental challenges in cognitive systems but also target some specific application areas, work that we often carry out with our partners." This is Ottersten's second ERC AdG. He was awarded his first grant in 2008 while conducting research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden when the ERC had just been created. Prof Ludwig Neyses, Acting President and Vice-president for Research at the University of Luxembourg, is thrilled about this milestone in Luxembourgish research: "This award demonstrates the trailblazing research our experts are conducting here at the University of Luxembourg. This second ERC grant for the SnT once more demonstrates the exceptional international reputation that our Interdisciplinary Centre has earned in only few years." After the physicists and material scientists Prof Jan Lagerwall, Prof Alexandre Tkatchenko, and Dr Massimiliano Esposito, the engineering scientist Prof. Stéphane Bordas, and the IT scientist Lionel Briand, Björn Ottersten is already the sixth scientist from the University of Luxembourg to be awarded an ERC Grant. Additionally, the ERC grant holder Josip Glaurdi? joined the University of Luxembourg as an Associate Professor of Political Science in April 2017.


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Researchers at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm have teamed up with AI language analysis company Gavagai AB to build a dolphin language dictionary The startup Gavagai is a spinoff company from the Swedish Institute of Computer Science, and has already successfully learned 40 human languages. The project plan is to track and record communication between a group of bottlenose dolphins located in a wildlife park outside of Stockholm, Sweden for the next four years. The team will use Gavagai’s AI software to build a database of dolphin language. If successful, the benefits of the results are two-fold – there are obvious scientific implications for researchers and zoologists to better understand the animals, but it will also expand the current capabilities of AI for businesses. Dolphins do have a complex communication system featuring various clicks and whistles that has fascinated researchers for decades. Combined with their heightened intelligence, dolphins have been trained by the U.S. Navy to perform tasks like detecting mines as part of the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). Last year, a paper authored by Russian scientists claimed to have recorded evidence of two dolphins “speaking” to each other. The recordings resembled a human conversation – the pair took turns expressing sounds without interrupting each other. But many marine researchers were not convinced that the published paper’s findings showed conclusive evidence that dolphins have their own spoken language. The latest Swedish project may help settle the debate by 2021.


The first analysis of how proteins are arranged in a cell was published today in Science, revealing that a large portion of human proteins can be found in more than one location in a given cell. Using the Sweden-based Cell Atlas, researchers examined the spatial distribution of the human proteome that correspond to the majority of protein-coding genes, and they described in unprecedented detail the distribution of proteins to the various organelles and substructures of the human body's smallest unit, the cell. Within a cell, the organelles create partitions that form an enclosed environment for chemical reactions tailored to fulfill specific functions in the cell. Since these functions are tightly linked to specific sets of proteins, knowing the subcellular location of the human proteome is key knowledge for understanding the function and underlying mechanisms of the human cell. The study was led by Emma Lundberg, associate professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology and responsible for the High Content Microscopy facility at the Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab) in Stockholm, Sweden. The team generated more than 300,000 images to systematically resolve the spatial distribution of human proteins in cultivated cell lines, and map them to cellular compartments and substructures with single cell resolution. The Cell Atlas is the result of more than 10 years of research within the Human Protein Atlas program, and was launched in December 2016. The article in Science describes the detailed analysis of hundreds of thousands of images created as part of this international effort, which also involved groups in China, South Korea, India, Denmark, and Germany. "Only by studying the molecular components of the body's smallest functional unit - the cell - can we reach a full understanding of human biology," says KTH Professor Mathias Uhlen, director of the Human Protein Atlas. "The Cell Atlas provides researchers with new knowledge that facilitates functional exploration of individual proteins and their role in human biology and disease." The published article also includes a comparative study performed by Kathryn Lilley, director of the Cambridge Centre for Proteomics, at Cambridge University, UK, which enabled the antibody-based immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy analysis to be validated by an alternative mapping strategy that used mass spectrometry. A total of 12,003 proteins targeted by 13,993 antibodies were classified into one or several of 30 cellular compartments and substructures, altogether defining the proteome of 13 major organelles. The organelles with the largest proteomes were the nucleus (6,930) and its substructures, such as bodies and speckles, and the cytosol (4,279). Interestingly, about one-half of the proteins are found in more than one compartment revealing a shared pool of proteins in functionally unrelated parts of the cell. This finding sheds new light on the complexity of cells. The Cell Atlas is an open access resource that can be used by researchers around the world to study proteins or organelles of interest. Lundberg says. "The Atlas enables systems biology and cell modeling applications, and it is also a highly valuable resource for machine learning applications in image pattern recognition." The Cell Atlas is part of the Human Protein Atlas project, which was initiated in 2003 by Professor Mathias Uhlén and is funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Primarily based in Sweden, the Human Protein Atlas project involves the joint efforts of KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Uppsala University, Uppsala Akademiska University Hospital and, more recently, Science for Life Laboratory, which is based in both Uppsala and Stockholm. Formal collaborations are with groups in India, South Korea, Japan, China, Germany, France, Switzerland, USA, Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Spain and Italy. The Cell Atlas can be viewed at http://www. .


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

The strongest yet hybrid silk fibers have been created by scientists in Sweden using all renewable resources. Combining spider silk proteins with nanocellulose from wood, the process offers a low-cost and scalable way to make bioactive materials for a wide range of medical uses. Published in American Chemical Society Nano by researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, the technique brings together the structural and mechanical performance of inexpensive cellulose nanofibrils with the medicinal properties of spider silk, which is difficult and expensive to fabricate on a larger scale. The bioactive properties of spider silk have been known for centuries. In ancient Rome, spider webs were used to dress soldiers’ battle wounds. But producing large scale amounts of spider silk material today has proven an expensive process, which often relies on fossil-based sources. KTH Protein Technology researcher My Hedhammar says that by comparison, wood-based nanocellulose is cheap and sustainable. Furthermore, the technique of combining it with only small amounts of spider silk protein yields a biofunctional material that can be used for such medical purposes as promoting cell growth.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

The places proteins go in the human cell could come into clearer focus thanks to the work of researchers who have tracked 12,003 proteins among 30 subcellular locations where the biomolecules go about their business. A team led by Mathias Uhlén and Emma Lundberg of KTH Royal Institute of Technology examined 22 human cell lines using antibody-based fluorescence microscopy and found that many of the proteins locate in multiple places around the cell (examples in green), from well-known organelles such as the mitochondria to more recently discovered entities such as the aggresome, where a cell’s misfolded proteins are collected for processing before degradation (Science 2017, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3321). The researchers anticipate their image-based subcellular map, called Cell Atlas, will be a useful tool to refine existing protein-protein interaction networks and to “deconvolute the highly complex architecture of the human cell.”


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Researchers at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm have teamed up with AI language analysis company Gavagai AB to build a dolphin language dictionary The startup Gavagai is a spinoff company from the Swedish Institute of Computer Science, and has already successfully learned 40 human languages. The project plan is to track and record communication between a group of bottlenose dolphins located in a wildlife park outside of Stockholm, Sweden for the next four years. The team will use Gavagai’s AI software to build a database of dolphin language. If successful, the benefits of the results are two-fold – there are obvious scientific implications for researchers and zoologists to better understand the animals, but it will also expand the current capabilities of AI for businesses. Dolphins do have a complex communication system featuring various clicks and whistles that has fascinated researchers for decades. Combined with their heightened intelligence, dolphins have been trained by the U.S. Navy to perform tasks like detecting mines as part of the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). Last year, a paper authored by Russian scientists claimed to have recorded evidence of two dolphins “speaking” to each other. The recordings resembled a human conversation – the pair took turns expressing sounds without interrupting each other. But many marine researchers were not convinced that the published paper’s findings showed conclusive evidence that dolphins have their own spoken language. The latest Swedish project may help settle the debate by 2021.


Using the Sweden-based Cell Atlas, researchers examined the spatial distribution of the human proteome that correspond to the majority of protein-coding genes, and they described in unprecedented detail the distribution of proteins to the various organelles and substructures of the human body's smallest unit, the cell. Within a cell, the organelles create partitions that form an enclosed environment for chemical reactions tailored to fulfill specific functions in the cell. Since these functions are tightly linked to specific sets of proteins, knowing the subcellular location of the human proteome is key knowledge for understanding the function and underlying mechanisms of the human cell. The study was led by Emma Lundberg, associate professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology and responsible for the High Content Microscopy facility at the Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab) in Stockholm, Sweden. The team generated more than 300,000 images to systematically resolve the spatial distribution of human proteins in cultivated cell lines, and map them to cellular compartments and substructures with single cell resolution. The Cell Atlas is the result of more than 10 years of research within the Human Protein Atlas program, and was launched in December 2016. The article in Science describes the detailed analysis of hundreds of thousands of images created as part of this international effort, which also involved groups in China, South Korea, India, Denmark, and Germany. "Only by studying the molecular components of the body's smallest functional unit - the cell - can we reach a full understanding of human biology," says KTH Professor Mathias Uhlen, director of the Human Protein Atlas. "The Cell Atlas provides researchers with new knowledge that facilitates functional exploration of individual proteins and their role in human biology and disease." The published article also includes a comparative study performed by Kathryn Lilley, director of the Cambridge Centre for Proteomics, at Cambridge University, UK, which enabled the antibody-based immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy analysis to be validated by an alternative mapping strategy that used mass spectrometry. A total of 12,003 proteins targeted by 13,993 antibodies were classified into one or several of 30 cellular compartments and substructures, altogether defining the proteome of 13 major organelles. The organelles with the largest proteomes were the nucleus (6,930) and its substructures, such as bodies and speckles, and the cytosol (4,279). Interestingly, about one-half of the proteins are found in more than one compartment revealing a shared pool of proteins in functionally unrelated parts of the cell. This finding sheds new light on the complexity of cells. The Cell Atlas is an open access resource that can be used by researchers around the world to study proteins or organelles of interest. Lundberg says. "The Atlas enables systems biology and cell modeling applications, and it is also a highly valuable resource for machine learning applications in image pattern recognition." More information: "A subcellular map of the human proteome", Science (2017). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aal3321


Gouteraux B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

In this work, we examine how charge is transported in a theory where momentum is relaxed by spatially dependent, massless scalars. We analyze the possible IR phases in terms of various scaling exponents and the (ir)relevance of operators in the IR effective holographic theory with a dilaton. We compute the (finite) resistivity and encounter broad families of (in)coherent metals and insulators, characterized by universal scaling behaviour. The optical conductivity at zero temperature and low frequencies exhibits power tails which can violate scaling symmetries, due to the running of the dilaton. At low temperatures, our model captures features of random-field disorder. © The Authors.


Walter M.V.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Malkoch M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Dendrimers are highly branched and monodisperse macromolecules that display an exact and large number of functional groups distributed with unprecedented control on the dendritic framework. Based on their globular structure, compared to linear polymers of the same molecular weight, dendrimers are foreseen to deliver extraordinary features for applications in areas such as cancer therapy, biosensors for diagnostics and light harvesting scaffolds. Of the large number of reports on dendrimer synthesis only a few have reached commercial availability. This limitation can be traced back to challenges in the synthetic paths including a large number of reaction steps required to obtain dendritic structures with desired features. Along with an increased number of reaction steps come not only increased waste of chemical and valuable starting materials but also an increased probability to introduce structural defects in the dendritic framework. This tutorial review briefly covers traditional growth approaches to dendrimers and mainly highlights accelerated approaches to dendrimers. A special focus capitalizes on the impact of the click chemistry concept on dendrimer synthesis and the promise it has to successfully accomplish highly sophisticated dendrimers, both traditional as well as heterofunctional, in a minimum number of chemical steps. It is clear that accelerated synthetic approaches are of greatest importance as these will encourage the scientific community to synthesize and access dendrimers for specific applications. The final goal of accelerated synthesis is to deliver economically justified dendritic materials for future applications without compromising the environmental perspective. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Aronson M.F.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km(2)) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

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