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Piemonte V.,Biomedical University of Rome | Di Paola L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Iaquaniello G.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Prisciandaro M.,University of LAquila
Journal of Cleaner Production

The industrial scale production of biodiesel, the most common biofuel, requires innovative solutions to become more and more competitive with a reduced environmental impact. Microalgae are the most promising feedstock for biodiesel production since they are grown on non-arable areas and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions as well. The oil extraction is the competitiveness bottleneck, largely impacting the overall process cost. Oil extraction using ionic liquids is considered a promising technique, which has the chance to become a benchmark for large scale applications. In this paper a novel process simulation of ionic liquid operation is developed, implemented by Aspen Hysys V7.3®. The chosen ionic liquid is Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, a green solvent; since it is a non-conventional compound, a method to compute its properties through a thermodynamic model is provided. Moreover, a process scheme has been set up and simulated, composed of a lysis reactor, in which the ionic liquid is added for oil extraction, and a three phase separator, with recycle lines and several heat exchangers for heat recovery. Mass and energy balances have been carried out. The main results allowed to calculate the recovered oil as a function of the ionic liquid to dry biomass weight ratio (with assuming a bio-oil extraction yield of 100) and as expected, the bio-oil recovery yield increased at decreasing temperature. However, a complete recovery is not feasible, due to the physical constraints in the thermodynamic model hypotheses. Albeit some simplifying hypotheses for the thermodynamic properties, the novelty of this work is that it reports results of a process simulation, providing indication for industrial technological implementation coming from a professional tool for process simulation and control. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Manenti F.,Polytechnic of Milan | Manenti G.,Alfa Laval | Molinari L.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A.
Hydrocarbon Processing

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) represent major concerns for the hydrocarbon industry. Both species are contaminants and, since their use as feedstock is minor, are considered troubling byproducts. H2S, which mainly derives from oil and gas desulfurization, cannot be vented. Consequently, neutralization is mandatory. Practically every refinery is equipped with a Claus sulfur recovery unit (SRU). Flue gases rich in CO2 are vented, contributing to climate change; sequestration of CO2 is technically viable, but remote disposal still remains a questionable end. © 2016, Gulf Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Source

Palma V.,University of Salerno | Castaldo F.,University of Salerno | Ciambelli P.,University of Salerno | Iaquaniello G.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A.
EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference

The steam reforming of ethanol (ESR) is considered an environmentally begin route to sustainable energy, combining hydrogen production for fuel cell applications to the advantages of biomass-derived ethanol: the latter is renewable, non-toxic, sulfur free and directly usable as an aqueous solution. In this study is investigate the behavior of home-made catalysts, supported on CeO2, for the ESR reaction at low temperature (300-600 °C), in terms of activity, selectivity and stability. The effect of the preparation method, temperature, GHSV and feed composition was taken into account; the results were compared with the equilibrium and the outcomes of characterization techniques. The tests showed that CeO2 gives a crucial contribution, due to its stability and the not nearly trifling activity in the ESR reaction. The most promising catalysts were selected for additional tests, aimed to hypothesize a specified set of reactions, resulting in a mathematical kinetic model of the system. Copyright © 2013 Delta Energy and Environment. Source

Colozzi M.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Cortese S.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Barbato L.,Processi Innovativi srl | Palma V.,University of Salerno | And 2 more authors.
Sulphur 2015 - 31st Annual Conference of Sulphur and Sulphuric Acid

The collaborative research and development project between KT-Kinetics Technology (KT) and the University of Salerno (UNISA) has been started over a decade ago with the main purpose to identify and develop a new process for the treatment of H2S. The starting idea was to create technological innovation by improving reliability, expanding productivity and driving down costs while reducing environmental impacts. The driving factor of this research and development project has been the production of H2 by thermal or catalytic cracking of H2S, in presence of O2 or membrane assisted. The process engineering expertise of KT jointed with the academic competences and laboratory plant of UNISA has made possible the development of experimental tests of several methods for H2S decomposition. All the knowledge acquired and the encouraging results have been utilized to develop the Selective Oxidative Autothermal Process (KT S.O.A.P.™) as the novel way to process H2S which allow to obtain H2 production and SO2minimization. This paper provides the laboratory test results for the main technology solutions investigated by KT and UNISA starting from the Catalytic Reaction Membrane Separation method (KT C.R.M.S.™) up to the Selective Oxidative Auto-thermal Process (KT S.O.A.P.™). The effects of the main operating parameters like reaction temperature, feeding ratio and residence time will be presented in terms of H2S conversion, H2 yield and SO2selectivity. Source

Colozzi M.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Cortese S.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Barbato L.,Processi Innovativi srl
Sulphur 2013 29th International Conference and Exhibition

KT - Kinetics Technology S.p.A. (KT) is developing a New Concept of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU), utilizing a Novel Process, an innovative catalyst and a new process scheme for the treatment of all Sour Gases feedstock. The New Sulphur Recovery Configuration, with customised and tailor-made selection of operating parameters, is full in compliance with the strictest environmental emission regulation and allows achieving the goal of "zero emissions" to the atmosphere. The core-part of the Innovative SRU is the Sour Gas Selective & Oxidative Autothermal Process (Sour Gas SOAP), fully integrated with KT RAR Tail Gas Treatment (TGT) plant configuration. The distinguishing feature of the Novel Process is the production of H2 and Liquid Sulphur through Sour Gas Cracking Catalytic Partial Oxidation, instead of SO2 and Liquid Sulphur as per benchmark process technology. For the New SRU a very flexible plant scheme has been developed with the aim to be utilized as it is in all possible Industrial Application: Petroleum Refinery, Oil & Gas Field, Coal Gasification, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Complex and Chemical & Petrochemical Complex. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Novel Process, mechanism of reaction and the relevant Plant Configuration as well as the CAPEX and OPEX Analysis for a SRU installed in a Petroleum Refinery and in a Gas Field. The main results of CAPEX and OPEX Analysis is a reduction up to 30% with the final goal of "zero emissions". Source

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