Krueger

Richardson, TX, United States
Richardson, TX, United States
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Patent
Silberman, Riberich, Pantano Rubino, Becker, Lanari, Jülich Research Center, Waldron, Kline, Siegrist, Krueger and Doherty | Date: 2012-11-07

A covering system (10) includes a flexible, web-like membrane (12) having first and second portions (14,16). A first cross support (18) is connected to the first portion of the membrane, and a second cross support (20) is connected to the second portion of the membrane. A drive mechanism (22,24) is provided for moving the second cross support relative to the first cross support so that the membrane is movable between a first, retracted position and a second, deployed position. The drive mechanism includes a force multiplication mechanism (36) for facilitating a longitudinal tensile stress application to the membrane when it is in the second, deployed position. A transverse tensioning mechanism (78) that includes a catenary linkage (88) is also provided for tensioning the membrane in a direction that is transverse to the longitudinal direction.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger | Earis G.,Nailor Industries
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2015

July 2015's "Basics of Well-Mixed Room Air Distribution" described how conditioned air moves throughout a space. In this Fundamentals at Work article, we discuss where the conditioned air comes from by exploring the most predominant products in use today: commercial building variable air volume (VAV) terminal units.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2015

This article is the first of three I have written for the Fundamentals at Work series. This one will cover air distribution for well-mixed systems, the most common application in commercial and institutional buildings in the U.S. It will be followed by articles on air terminals and acoustics. All three topics are interdependent, meaning that there must be an understanding of the relationship between air distribution, air delivery rates, and acoustics to properly design an HVAC system that will provide an acceptable indoor thermal environment for occupants. Copyright 2015 ASHRAE.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger | Wilbar L.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2014

Chilled beams have been prevalent in Europe for many years, and have become one of the latest HVAC products to be adopted by engineers in the U.S. In fact, millions of square feet (square meters) are heated and cooled with these devices every day. Simply put, they are air-to-air induction diffusers with a coil. Much like any other piece of building equipment, there is a need to balance both first cost and effective performance. However, the complexity of the product is such that if improperly selected, may lead to unsatisfactory room temperatures, drafty conditions, or wasted energy. © Copyright 2014 ASHRAE.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger | Wilbar L.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2014

Today's design engineers face a series of complex decisions in an effort to reduce energy consumption and maintain comfort, all while meeting a variety of codes and standards. One option that seems to satisfy all these requirements is a DOAS fan-powered terminal unit. Its combination of a variable speed ECM fan, large sensible cooling coil, and small DOAS primary air valve allows for the widest possible range of operational strategies that both minimize energy and maximize ventilation control. Used either alone in a traditional overhead application or integrated with newer system technologies, it is sure to be a solid option for engineers seeking sustainable air-distribution solutions.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2012

In summary, several standards should be met when delivering air into occupied spaces. Standard 62.1 ventilation rate procedure is a LEED prerequisite and is part of many building codes. Discharge temperatures when heating from the ceiling should be controlled to less than 15°F (8°C) above room setpoint, or additional ventilation air must be supplied. ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 is mentioned in several codes and can be used to help earn a LEED point. Maintaining the vertical temperature stratification limit in heating also requires controlling discharge temperatures. Ceiling diffusers must be located, and adjusted, to avoid drafts when jets collide at high airflows, or drop into the space at low flows. There are very few locations where a linear diffuser should be set to discharge down, although it seems many are set that way, likely by accident. Acoustics is a big issue. AHRI Standard AHRI 885-2008, Procedure for Estimating Occupied Space Sound Levels in the Application of Air Terminals and Air Outlets provides an excellent methodology, and a spreadsheet, for calculating HVAC generated sound for most applications, and will be referenced in the upcoming LEED rating systems. The availability of real-time sound analysis on smart phones will allow occupants to do their own acoustical analysis, for better or worse. Displacement ventilation and underfloor air distribution are quiet air delivery systems, which means that they will be considered for meeting the upcoming sound specifications in classrooms. Because of the higher required discharge temperatures, care must be taken to control humidity. Heating is also a challenge with DV systems. UFAD systems must be designed to control leakage, and to ensure that cold air is available at the perimeter when in cooling demand. Heating systems must also be carefully designed. Finally, all of the ASHRAE standards referenced here use a continuous maintenance procedure, which means that anyone may propose changes at any time. Each change will be considered by the appropriate standards committee. The public review process allows everyone to comment on proposed changes.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2012

Now that we know the essential requirements, we can discuss the primary methods of supplying air to spaces. The ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals has been updated to include overhead fully mixed, as well as fully stratified and partially mixed systems from below, and even task/ambient personal air delivery systems. All have advantages and disadvantages, which must be understood by the design engineer and architect. In the second installment we will discuss issues associated with both well mixed and stratified air delivery systems.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2014

ASHRAE recently established several multidisciplinary task groups (MTG) and challenged them to integrate ideas from across a number of technical committees (TC) and other interest groups. Members of the MTGs represent their corresponding committees, not themselves, which is a unique policy in ASHRAE. Additionally, members are recertified annually by the chair of the TC they represent. © 2014 ASHRAE.


Int-Hout D.,Krueger
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2014

Conditioning spaces with large vertical walls is a challenge for design engineers, especially when it has to be coordinated with an architect's aesthetic concept. As is often the case in lobbies or atriums, these areas are composed of glass and can be anywhere from 12 to 18 ft (3.6 m to 5.4 m) high. While people do not typically occupy the space next to the window for long lengths of time, it is still important that proper air distribution and comfort conditions be maintained. © 2014 ASHRAE.

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