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Wang L.,University of Kent | Yan Y.,University of Kent | Wang X.,University of Kent | Wang T.,KROHNE Ltd
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wang T.,KROHNE Ltd. | Baker R.,University of Cambridge
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation | Year: 2014

This paper starts from a brief revisit of key early published work so that an overview of modern Coriolis flowmeters can be provided based on a historical background. The paper, then, focuses on providing an updated review of Coriolis flow measurement technology over the past 20 years. Published research work and industrial Coriolis flowmeter design are both reviewed in details. It is the intention of this paper to provide a comprehensive review study of all important topics in the subject, which include interesting theoretical and experimental studies and innovative industrial developments and applications. The advances in fundamental understanding and technology development are clearly identified. Future directions in various areas together with some open questions are also outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Adefila K.,University of Kent | Yan Y.,University of Kent | Sun L.,Tianjin University | Wang T.,KROHNE Ltd.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2015

In this paper, an averaging pitot tube (APT) with flow conditioning wing (FCW) geometry is used as a practical sensing device to measure and characterize the flow of single-phase gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2). This technique demonstrates a simple, cost-effective, and potentially accurate option toward the measurement, accurate accounting, and characterization of CO2 in carbon capture and storage pipelines. The metrological performance of the flow sensor is verified using air medium before being applied for gaseous CO2. With a Coriolis mass flowmeter acting as a secondary calibration reference to further validate the performance of the APT-FCW flow sensor, both metering instruments were evaluated against a weighing scale apparatus. From the experimental and calibration data with air, the APT-FCWs average K-factor and linearity error are found to be 0.5091 and 0.725%, respectively. With operating conditions remaining unaltered in this particular flow measurement application and a target metering error within ±1%, the errors achieved for the Coriolis meter and the APT-FCW are better than ±0.6% and ±1.2%, respectively. Total uncertainty estimations under the stipulated environmental and working conditions are within ±1% and ±1.5% for the Coriolis meter and APT-FCW, respectively. The test results and other performance evaluation of the instruments are also discussed. © 2015 IEEE.


Nazeri M.,Heriot - Watt University | Maroto-Valer M.M.,Heriot - Watt University | Jukes E.,KROHNE Ltd.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016

Fiscal metering or custody transfer of CO2 with impurities is an important challenge due to the unusual physical properties of CO2 compared to other transportable fluids by pipelines (e.g. natural gas, water and oil products). The presence of impurities affects the thermophysical properties of CO2-rich systems, particularly in the conditions likely to be experienced in the CO2 transportation by pipeline. This can challenge the precise measurement of flow rate as the performance of the flowmeters are significantly affected by thermophysical properties of the transported fluid. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) requires an uncertainty level of ±1.5% or less by mass for fiscal metering of CO2 with impurities. In this paper, the performance of Coriolis mass flowmeter (OPTIMASS 6000-S08, from KROHNE) was investigated in presence of impurities using different gas mixtures representing pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel processes. Steady state and transient conditions were studied in the mass flow rig using a weighing scale in start/stop operation and the uncertainty of the tests was obtained by comparing the measured mass by robust weighing scale and the mass readout from the flowmeter. The results show that the uncertainties can be expected to be within the range of EU ETS requirements for an appropriately sized flow meter. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Adefila K.,University of Kent | Yan Y.,University of Kent | Wang T.,KROHNE LTD
Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference | Year: 2015

Leakage detection and monitoring technologies play a critical role in CO2 transportation pipelines to effectively help reduce financial loses and potential damages to the environment. This paper investigates the leak of gaseous CO2 in a controlled laboratory environment using thermal imaging based on the temperature change detection technique. Platinum resistance temperature detector is also used to provide accurate spot temperature measurement as an additional means. An airtight and carefully contained flow system with a pipe circumscribed in a clear-type polycarbonate chamber is used to simulate CO2 gas leak through various aperture diameter sizes and different flow pressures. The leakage rates from the aperture are estimated via mathematical solutions. Measurement results demonstrate that the IR imaging system is capable of detecting temperature changes under different leakage scenarios. Other results and experimental observations are also detailed in the paper. © 2015 IEEE.


Wang T.,Krohne Ltd. | Hussain Y.,Krohne Ltd.
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation | Year: 2010

The current status of available work regarding the pressure effect on Coriolis mass flowmeters is reviewed, which shows significant improvement in the latest generation of Coriolis flowmeters. A theoretical method using the linear damping model is proposed to understand the pressure effect. This new method applied to Coriolis flow sensors provides intuitive insight into the flow-generated signal by studying undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes. Most importantly this method can be used to model virtually any shape and configuration of flow sensors as found in the practical design. It is found that when the pressure changes it alters the superimposed contribution and the mass flow measurement can deviate from the reference condition. Experimental results from both low and high pressure flow tests are reported, which are in general agreement with the theoretical prediction. Further specific work is finally suggested which may advance our understanding and improve the Coriolis mass flow measurement technology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang T.,KROHNE Ltd | Platts J.,University of Cambridge
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture | Year: 2010

Impact modelling for shot peening or peen forming has progressed from simulating a single impact (or local multiple impacts) to simulating a large number of multiple impacts. It is the aim of this paper to provide quantitative results with a detailed finite element study, and to compare the effects of a single impact and global multiple impacts. Using a two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric single impact model with a very fine mesh as reference, an appropriate three-dimensional (3D) mesh density for the target material is chosen by evaluating the 3D results against the axisymmetric results. A 3D explicit dynamic finite element analysis combined with a static springback analysis is then used to simulate a large number of steel shot impacts on an aluminium 2024-T351 target. The multiple impact modelling results indicate a clear difference of residual stress profiles between those obtained from single and multiple impact modelling. This difference is due to the global uniformity effects of shot peening, which involves numerous impacts. In addition, equivalent plastic strain obtained from the analysis is compared with microhardness test data on an experimental sample. Finally, the shot peen forming effect of multiple impacts is also evaluated by showing the macroscopic surface deformation. The comparison between single and multiple impact modelling results indicates that it is appropriate and important to model an appropriate coverage of multiple impacts for shot peening and peen forming at its various coverage. © 2010 Authors.


Adefila K.,University of Kent | Yan Y.,University of Kent | Sun L.,Tianjin University | Wang T.,KROHNE LTD
Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference | Year: 2014

In this paper, an Averaging Pitot Tube (APT) with Flow Conditioning Wing (FCW) geometry is used as a practical sensing device to measure and characterize the flow of single-phase gaseous CO2. The technique demonstrates a simple, cost-effective and potentially accurate option towards the measurement, accurate accounting and characterization of CO2 in Carbon Capture and Storage pipelines. The metrological performance of the flow sensor is verified using air medium before being applied for gaseous CO2. With a Coriolis mass flow meter acting as a secondary calibration reference to further validate the performance of the APT-FCW flow sensor, both metering instruments were evaluated against a weighing scale apparatus. From experimental and calibration data with air, the APT-FCW's average K-factor and linearity error are found to be 0.5091 and 0.725%, respectively. With operating conditions remaining unaltered in this particular flow measurement application and a target accuracy of ±1%, the error achieved for the Coriolis meter is better than ±0.5% and ±1% for the APT-FCW. Test results and other performance evaluation of the instruments are also discussed. © 2014 IEEE.


Wong T.,KROHNE Ltd | Hussain Y.,KROHNE Ltd
Measurement and Control | Year: 2011

Nuclear power is becoming a very important low-carbon option to achieve electricity production. As proved in many other process plants, Coriolis flowmeters have a number of advantages for measuring process parameters, typically flow and density. This paper looks specifically at the development and application of Coriolis flowmeters for nuclear power plants. In particular, the requirements of typical nuclear applications and the design considerations to meet these requirements are discussed. Using ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, as the governing code, design of straight-tube Coriolis flowmeters is described, which resulted a series of products with ASME N-Stamp certificates.


Hussain Y.,KROHNE Ltd.
Measurement and Control | Year: 2011

Large size Coriolis flowmeters up to 10-inch (or DN250) have been developed using the latest twin straight-ttube technology. The development of the flow sensors employs a virtual prototyping approach based on numerical simulation. Design is optimised to achieve good flow and density measurement performance. Additional temperature sensors and strain gauges are also attached on the flow tube to provide correction information under non-reference conditions. A specially designed water flow rig is used by the manufacturer to calibrate large size Coriolis flowmeters according to weigh scales traceable to national standards. Extensive tests in the manufacturer's internal flow rigs and external flow rigs have been performed. The test results confirm the flowmeters' performance and prove their capability for custody transfer applications.

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