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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Hui-Callahan B.C.,Kroger Pharmacy | Luder H.R.,University of Cincinnati | Frede S.M.,Kroger Pharmacy
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association | Year: 2013

Objectives: To determine whether patients with diabetes who used a financial rewards program in a grocery chain pharmacy had increased rates of self-reported healthy behaviors, to measure the impact of the program on glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), and to measure the impact of the program on grocery store sales. Methods: This prospective study took place at one location of a grocery chain pharmacy in Cincinnati, OH. Adult patients with diabetes on at least one diabetes medication were eligible to participate. Participants received a $5 incentive for each weeklong behavior log completed and reviewed with the pharmacist, who provided counseling on improving healthy behaviors. Change in self-reported healthy behaviors, A1C, grocery store expenditure, and program satisfaction were measured. Results: During the 12-week study, 25 patients enrolled in the program. A total of 13 participants completed the poststudy survey and reported increased rates of self-monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure and increased exercise frequency. Differences in A1C and grocery store expenditures were unable to be detected. Satisfaction with the pay-for-performance-for-patients (P4P4P) program was favorable (8.6 on a 10-point scale). Conclusion: Participants given small, frequent financial incentives had increased frequency of healthy behaviors and were satisfied with the P4P4P program.

Metzger A.,University of Cincinnati | Nagaraj T.,Kroger Pharmacy
Consultant Pharmacist | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: This article serves as a resource for health care professionals by providing a summary of primary literature and guidelines for use of the available oral anticoagulant agents. The cost vs. efficacy aspects and reversibility of these medications are also addressed. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS: A PubMed search and Cochrane database review were conducted between June 15 and June 30, 2014, to find appropriate primary literature on each of the new oral anticoagulants. All phase 3 trials for apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban for the treatment of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were included. The American College of Chest Physicians guideline recommendations for stroke prevention in AF and VTE treatment, and the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for AF were reviewed, and pertinent information regarding the new anticoagulants from these guidelines is included in this review. A PubMed search was also used to identify cost-efficacy references and articles on reversibility of bleeding discussed in this paper. For all these articles, no further data analysis was performed; rather summaries and discussions of all of the articles included are provided in this review. CONCLUSION: The new oral anticoagulant agents have great potential in becoming standard therapy in both VTE and stroke prevention with AF. Initial clinical evidence proves they are clinically effective and potentially cost-effective for patients searching for an alternative for warfarin. Once reversal agents are developed and long-term use data become available, these agents will likely become common in many clinical practices. © 2015 American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kisor D.F.,Ohio Northern University | Bright D.R.,Ohio Northern University | Conaway M.,Kroger Pharmacy | Bouts B.A.,Blanchard Valley Medical Assoc. | Gerschutz G.P.,Blanchard Valley Medical Assoc.
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2014

Introduction: Although antiplatelet therapy is a mainstay of postpercutaneous coronary intervention therapy, pharmacogenetic (PGt) considerations of therapy are often ignored despite related Food and Drug Administration warnings. Pharmacists are well situated to provide PGt guidance, and the community pharmacy is one setting where PGt testing, interpretation, and recommendations can take place to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes. Case Report: A 65-year-old man who had a myocardial infarction that was treated with PCI and stent placement was determined by a community pharmacist to be a candidate for PGt testing to ensure optimal antiplatelet therapy. The patient was seen in the pharmacy as a part of a medication therapy management encounter and underwent genetic testing. Results of the genetic testing indicated the need for modification of therapy. The community pharmacist interpreted the results and made the appropriate recommendation to the cardiologist who in turn modified antiplatelet therapy appropriately. Conclusion: This case describes the potential for collaboration between pharmacists and physicians to optimize antiplatelet therapy through PGt testing. Points of consideration for others looking to implement related PGt services are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permission: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav.

Sevin A.M.,Ohio State University | Romeo C.,BTG | Gagne B.,Kroger Pharmacy | Brown N.V.,Ohio State University | Rodis J.L.,Ohio State University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: Adult vaccination rates in the United States are well below recommendations with disparities in race, ethnicity, and education level resulting in even lower rates for these populations. This study aimed to identify the barriers to and perceptions of immunizations in adults in an urban, underserved, multicultural community. Understanding the factors that influence adults' decisions to receive routinely recommended vaccines will aid health care providers and public health officials to design programs to improve vaccination rates. Methods: This cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted in January 2014 in Columbus, Ohio. Participants were recruited from four urban federally-qualified health centers and four grocery stores affiliated with those clinics. The survey gathered self-reported receipt of immunizations, knowledge about indications for immunizations, and factors influencing decisions to receive an immunization. Data was analyzed in 2014. Descriptive statistics were generated for all survey items and Chi-Square or Fisher's Exact tests were used as appropriate to test for associations between demographic characteristics and factors influencing immunization decisions. Results: The top five factors likely to affect the decision to receive an immunization among the 304 respondents were: "doctor's recommendation" (80.6 %), "knowing why I should get a vaccine" (78.2 %), "knowing which vaccines I need" (75.5 %), cost (54.2 %), and "concern about getting sick if I get a vaccine" (54.0 %). Significant differences in factors influencing the immunization decision exist among respondents based on ethnicity and education level. For those participants with self-identified diabetes, heart disease, or asthma, less than half were aware that certain immunizations could reduce the risk of complications associated with their disease(s). Conclusions: Data from this study may inform and shape patient education programs conducted in clinics, retailers, and communities, as well as advocacy efforts for adult immunizations. Results from this study suggest that patients would respond to programs for promoting vaccine uptake if they focused on benefits and indications for vaccines. The results also highlighted the need for education regarding immunizations for patients with chronic diseases and special indications. The differences in perceptions found between groups can be used to create targeted interventions based on the needs of those patient populations. © 2016 Sevin et al.

Luder H.,University of Cincinnati | Frede S.,Kroger Pharmacy | Kirby J.,Kroger Company | King K.,University of Cincinnati | Heaton P.,University of Cincinnati
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2016

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to survey new enrollees in a community pharmacy, employer-based diabetes and hypertension coaching program to describe the characteristics, health beliefs, and cues to action of newly enrolled participants. Methods: A 70-question, 5-point Likert-type survey was developed using constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). New enrollees in the coaching programs completed the survey. Survey responses between controlled and uncontrolled patients and patient demographics were compared. Results: Between November 2011 and November 2012, 154 patients completed the survey. Patients were fairly well controlled with a mean hemoglobin A1C of 7.3% and a mean blood pressure of 134/82 mm Hg. The strongest cue to action for enrollment was the financial incentives offered by the employer (mean: 3.33, median: 4). White patients were significantly more motivated by financial incentives. More patients indicated they had not enrolled previously in the program because they were unaware it was available (mean: 2.89, median 3.0) and these patients were more likely to have an uncontrolled condition (P ≤ 0.050). Conclusion: A top factor motivating patients to enroll in a disease management coaching program was the receipt of financial incentives. Significant differences in HBM, TPB, and TRA responses were seen for patients with different demographics. © SAGE Publications.

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