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Bolat D.,Krkkale University | Yldz D.,Krkkale University | Bahar S.,Selcuk University | Yuruker S.,Hacettepe University | And 5 more authors.
Biotechnic and Histochemistry | Year: 2017

We investigated the microscopic structure of transverse sections of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves of Arabian foals using stereological methods. Bilateral nerve pairs from 2-month-old female Arabian foals were analyzed. The tissues were embedded in plastic blocks, then 1 µm thick sections were cut and stained with osmium tetroxide and methylene blue-azure II. Stereology was performed using light microscopy. Morphometry showed that the right and left pairs of nerves were similar. The transverse sectional areas of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves were 1.93 ± 0.19 mm2, 0.32 ± 0.06 mm2 and 0.70 ± 0.08 mm2, respectively. The oculomotor nerve exhibited a significantly greater number of myelinated axons (16755 ± 1279) and trochlear (2656 ± 494) and the abducens nerves (4468 ± 447). The ratio of the axon diameter to myelinated nerve fiber diameter was 0.58, 0.55 and 0.55 for the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves, respectively. Of the three nerves studied, the abducens nerve exhibited the greatest nerve fiber area, myelin area, nerve and axon diameters, and myelin thickness. The ratio of small myelinated nerve fibers was greatest in the oculomotor nerve. © 2017 The Biological Stain Commission.


Ercan E.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Colak H.,Ishik University | Hamidi M.M.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Ibrahimov D.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Gulal E.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on shear bond strength. In this study, 60 caries-free human molar teeth were used. Smooth dentin surfaces were revealed by cutting occlusal enamel and a standard smear layer was obtained by using 600-grid sandpaper. Specimens were randomly assigned to four groups according to the disinfectant used: Group 1: Control (no disinfectant); Group 2: Ozone; Group 3: Chlorhexidine, Group 4: Boric acid. Specimens were bonded using S3 Plus Bond and the composite buildups were created by using composite resin according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After specimens were kept for 24 h, at 37 °C in distilled water, the shear bond strength test was measured with a universal test machine. The highest bond strength values were observed in the control group. The bond strength was significantly lower in the chlorhexidine, and boric acid-treated groups than it was in the control group (respectively, p = 0.046 and p = 0.028); however, no significant difference in the bond strength was observed between the ozone group and the control group (p = 0.444). The ozone group was detected as having the best shear bond strength values in groups which were applied to cavity disinfectants. Copyright © 2015 International Ozone Association.


Atmaca N.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Cinar M.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Guner B.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | Kabakci R.,Krkkale UniversityKrkkale | And 3 more authors.
Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of oxidative stress, hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii in gerbil. A total of 16 gerbil, 8 of which were control and 8 was infection group, were used in the study. The gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation of 5000 T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites. In group of, the gerbil were sacrificed at 7th day after inoculation. At the end of this period, blood samples collected and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, plasma aspartat aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranspherase (ALT) activities, total protein, albumin, globulin were determined. Besides, hematological parameters were analysed in whole blood. Aspartat aminotransferase and ALT activities and MDA concentrations and neutrophil percentage and total leukocyte counts increased significantly in infected group when compared to control. In infected group, SOD activities, albumin concentrations and lymhocyte percentage decreased when compared to control. The results of this study suggest that oxidative stress, hematological and biochemical alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in gerbils. © 2015 Chartered Inst. of Building Services Engineers. All rights reserved.

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