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Bangalore, India

Elcey C.D.,Kristu Jayanti College | Manoj B.,Bangalore University
Asian Journal of Chemistry

Raman spectra of two coal samples of different rank have been examined with Raman spectrometer operating at an excitation wavelength of 514.5 nm. Raman studies manifested the presence of G band conforming the first order scattering of E2g mode. The sp3 domains at about 1355 cm-1 (D band) is an evidence to edge planes and disordered structures. Analysis by curve fitting the first order spectrum justified the presence of G, D1, D2, D3 and D4 bands. The integrated intensity ratio IG/ID′ is found to be 3.66 and 5.8 while the ID/ID′ ratio is estimated to be about 3 and 4.9 for bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, respectively indicating on-site and hopping defect in the graphene layers. The 2D band is fitted with multiple Lorentian profile has 4 peaks, the intense G∗, G′, D + D′ and 2D′ band at 2445, 2690, 2925 and 3160 cm-1. From the second order spectrum, formation of about 6-8 stacked graphene layers is observed in sub-bitumionus coal. Source

Manoj B.,Bangalore University | Elcey C.D.,Kristu Jayanti College
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

The filamentous fungi, A. niger, A. flavus and Penicillium spp were studied for their ability to demineralise the low rank Indian coals. The FTIR spectra of coals showed the presence of stretching vibrations of -OH bond, aliphatic -CH, -CH2 and - CH3 absorptions, C=C and -CH of aromatic structure and mineral groups. X-ray analyses revealed that coal consists of crystalline carbon of turbostratic structure. The average lateral sizes (La), stacking height (Lc) and the interlayer spacing (d002) of the crystallite structure were calculated which ranged from 343.64 to 1.5, 223.20 to 22.54 and 3.35 to 3.60Å respectively. The structure of coal was modified to a product similar to that of pure graphite after leaching with Penicillium spp. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of coal revealed a layer like structure on the surface. Source

Deepa M.A.,Kristu Jayanti College | Narmatha Bai V.,Bharathiar University
International Journal of Botany

Celastraceae, family constitutes approximately 88 genera and 1300 species of plants. Celastraceae produce various β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters and pyridine alkaloids, some of which exhibit insect antifeedant and insecticidal activities. Sesquiterpenes with α±-dihydro-β-agarofuran skeleton are considered to be chemotaxonomic indicators of the Celastraceae family. Most of the reported compounds are found to possess insecticidal activity. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Prabhu S.,Kristu Jayanti College | Prabhu S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Pirany N.,Shahrekord University | Prasad D.T.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

The fate of alleles after population bottleneck is important for studying the genetic variability of population. For conducting this study, samples from three coconut populations with varied yield traits were collected from different agro climatic regions of south peninsular India. SSR analysis was carried out using thirty- two primer pairs to evaluate genetic variation. Using the software program BOTTLENECK, fluctuations in the population sizes have been identified by detecting the deviations from mutation drift equilibrium. Three well known microsatellite mutation models SMM, TPM and IAM have been used to assess the genetic bottleneck. Three statistical tests- sign test, standardized difference test and wilcox rank test were performed for each mutation model. The results revealed that high yielding and medium yielding populations showed heterozygosity excess, as most of the DH/SD values were positive under IAM, TPM and SMM. However low yielding population showed a heterozygosity deficiency. This clearly shows that the high and medium yielding coconut populations experience genetic bottleneck, however the low yielding population seems to be undergoing rapid population expansion. Source

Manoj B.,Bangalore University | Elcey C.D.,Kristu Jayanti College | Binu K.S.,Kristu Jayanti College
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences

Efficiency of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger on the bio-liquefaction of low rank Indian coals, its chemical composition, surface characteristics of the products and the microbial mechanisms of coal conversion were studied. Virgin and bio-liquefied/solubilized coal samples were characterized using FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy and CHNS and proximate analysis. The micrographs were bright field and reveal several features correspond to the mineral grains comprising of aluminium, silicates and calcites. The absence of some morphological features corresponds to inorganic elements in residual samples which confirm demineralisation with the possible formation of respective Aluminum and Silicate complexes. The change in absorption of mineral matter functional group of these coal samples were studied using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the proximate analysis it was found that the ash content decreased by 76% when treated with fungal culture. © Global Science Publications. Source

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