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Muller J.J.,Kristallographie | Weiss M.S.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Heinemann U.,Kristallographie | Heinemann U.,Free University of Berlin
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2011

The microneme protein SML-2 is a member of a small family of galactose-specific lectins that play a role during host-cell invasion by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis muris. The structures of apo SML-2 and the 1-thio-β-d-galactose-SML-2 complex were determined at 1.95 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively, by sulfur-SAD phasing. Highly elongated dimers are formed by PAN-domain tandems in the protomer, bearing the galactose-binding cavities at the distal apple-like domains. The detailed structure of the binding site in SML-2 explains the high specificity of galactose-endgroup binding and the broader specificity of the related Toxoplasma gondii protein TgMIC4 towards galactose and glucose. A large buried surface of highly hydrophobic character and 24 intersubunit hydrogen bonds stabilize the dimers and half of the 12 disulfides per dimer are shielded from the solvent by the polypeptide chain, thereby enhancing the resistance of the parasite protein towards unfolding and proteolysis that allows it to survive within the intestinal tracts of the intermediate and final hosts. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.

Daumke O.,Kristallographie | Daumke O.,Free University of Berlin | Praefcke G.J.K.,Paul Ehrlich Institute
Biopolymers | Year: 2016

Dynamin superfamily proteins are multidomain mechano-chemical GTPases which are implicated in nucleotide-dependent membrane remodeling events. A prominent feature of these proteins is their assembly- stimulated mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. The molecular basis for this reaction has been initially clarified for the dynamin-related guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP1) and involves the transient dimerization of the GTPase domains in a parallel head-to-head fashion. A catalytic arginine finger from the phosphate binding (P-) loop is repositioned toward the nucleotide of the same molecule to stabilize the transition state of GTP hydrolysis. Dynamin uses a related dimerization-dependent mechanism, but instead of the catalytic arginine, a monovalent cation is involved in catalysis. Still another variation of the GTP hydrolysis mechanism has been revealed for the dynamin-like Irga6 which bears a glycine at the corresponding position in the P-loop. Here, we highlight conserved and divergent features of GTP hydrolysis in dynamin superfamily proteins and show how nucleotide binding and hydrolysis are converted into mechano-chemical movements. We also describe models how the energy of GTP hydrolysis can be harnessed for diverse membrane remodeling events, such as membrane fission or fusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bohm K.,Kristallographie | Herter T.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Muller J.J.,Kristallographie | Borriss R.,Humboldt University of Berlin | And 2 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2010

The extracellular phytase of the plant-associated Klebsiella sp. ASR1 is a member of the histidine-acid-phosphatase family and acts primarily as a scavenger of phosphate groups locked in the phytic acid molecule. The Klebsiella enzyme is distinguished from the Escherichia coli phytase AppA by its sequence and phytate degradation pathway. The crystal structure of the phytase from Klebsiella sp. ASR1 has been determined to 1.7 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous-diffraction phasing. Despite low sequence similarity, the overall structure of Klebsiella phytase bears similarity to other histidine-acid phosphatases, such as E. coli phytase, glucose-1- phosphatase and human prostatic-acid phosphatase. The polypeptide chain is organized into an α and an α/β domain, and the active site is located in a positively charged cleft between the domains. Three sulfate ions bound to the catalytic pocket of an inactive mutant suggest a unique binding mode for its substrate phytate. Even in the absence of substrate, the Klebsiella phytase is closer in structure to the E. coli phytase AppA in its substrate-bound form than to phytate-free AppA. This is taken to suggest a preformed substrate-binding site in Klebsiella phytase. Differences in habitat and substrate availability thus gave rise to enzymes with different substrate-binding modes, specificities and kinetics. © 2010 FEBS.

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