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Thāna Bhawan, India

Jena J.K.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | Patro B.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | Patri P.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | Khuntia C.P.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Fisheries | Year: 2010

An aquaculture-based sewage treatment system, integrating duckweed and fish as biological components was evaluated in an urban area (Vanivihar) of Bhubaneswar city, India. The 4.5 MLD (million litres per day) system receiving continuous sewage flow comprised a sedimentation tank (0.185 ha, 3 m), three duckweed ponds (1.13 ha, depth 0.5-0.75 m) and two fish ponds (0.8 ha, depth 1.5 m). The raw sewage, after a short retention in sedimentation tank, was allowed to pass through the duckweed and fish ponds with retention periods of three and two days, respectively. The duckweed ponds with Lemna and Spirodela were provided with intermittent staggering walls for longer traversing distance of the sewage. With the doubling time of the weeds being 3-4 days, 50% of fully covered mats was harvested twice a week, keeping the residual material for further growth. The fish ponds were stocked with five carp species at a density of 10,000 fingerlings ha-1 and no additional inputs were provided. Treatment efficiency of the system was assessed through bimonthly monitoring of important chemical and microbiological parameters of water from sewage source, exit point of duckweed pond and outlet of the fish ponds for two years, during August, 2003 - August, 2005. The observations revealed mean reduction levels of 88% ammonia, 85% nitrite, 55% nitrate, 71% phosphate, 79% biological oxygen demand (BOD), 75% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 70% total suspended solids from the source to the outlet. Similarly, aerobic heterotrophs, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, Salmonella and Shigella population recorded reduction levels of 66.8, 85.7, 92.0, 92.4, 99.4 and 85.6% respectively. Source

Singh L.V.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | Singh L.V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Jayakumar S.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | Sharma A.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | And 4 more authors.
Meta Gene | Year: 2015

The most polymorphic milk protein gene is β-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of β-casein and exon 4 of κ-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (. Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (. Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (. Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (. Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the κ-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (. Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of κ-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Singh L.V.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | Sharma A.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | Kumari N.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | Kaur N.,DNA Fingerprinting Unit | And 4 more authors.
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to identify genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) gene locus of six different livestock species using PCR-Direct DNA sequencing method. In exon 5 of GH gene, 10 SNPs variants were identified in all livestock species studied, namely Bubalus bubalis, Bos indicus, Bos frontalis, Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, and Capra hircus. Four SNPs were observed in Bubalus bubalis, two SNPs in Bos indicus, one SNP in Ovis aries, and three SNPs in Capra hircus. No changes were observed in Bos grunniens and Bos frontalis when compared with the template sequence and the SNPs observed in the present investigation may be useful in the marker assisted selection. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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