Kriminaltechnisches Institute

Wiesbaden, Germany

Kriminaltechnisches Institute

Wiesbaden, Germany
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Linacre A.,Flinders University | Gusmao L.,University of Porto | Hecht W.,Justus Liebig University | Hellmann A.P.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | And 5 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kison C.,Ruhr University Bochum | Kison C.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Frinken J.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Paar C.,Ruhr University Bochum
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

In this paper, we demonstrate how the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) becomes a powerful tool for Side Channel Analysis (SCA) and Hardware Reverse Engineering. We locate the AES hardware circuit of a XMEGA microprocessor with Capacitive-Coupled Voltage Contrast (CCVC) images and use them in a powerful Voltage Contrast Side Channel Analysis (VCSCA). This enables an attacker to locate AES bit-wires in the top metal-layer and thus, to recover valuable net list information. An attacker gets a valuable entry-point to look for weaknesses or Intellectual Property (IP) in the AES circuit. Additionally we show the great potential of the VCSCA in a non-invasive Side Channel Analysis for Reverse Engineering (SCARE) approach. Finally, we recover the full key of the AES hardware-engine in a practical template-based VCSCA and a no-plaintext, no-cipher text and no-key Simple Side Channel Analysis (SSCA). We show that future VCSCA attacks present a big hardware security-risk that IC vendors need to consider. © International Association for Cryptologic Research 2015.

Groe Perdekamp M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Arnold M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Merkel J.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Mierdel K.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

In contact shots, all the materials emerging from the muzzle (combustion gases, soot, powder grains, and metals from the primer) will be driven into the depth of the entrance wound and the following sections of the bullet track. The so-called "pocket" ("powder cavity") under the skin containing soot and gunpowder particles is regarded as a significant indicator of a contact entrance wound since one would expect that the quantity of GSR deposited along the bullet's path rapidly declines towards the exit hole. Nevertheless, experience has shown that soot, powder particles, and carboxyhemoglobin may be found not only in the initial part of the wound channel, but also far away from the entrance and even at the exit. In order to investigate the propagation of GSRs under standardized conditions, contact test shots were fired against composite models of pig skin and 25-cm-long gelatin blocks using 9-mm Luger pistol cartridges with two different primers (Sinoxid® and Sintox®). Subsequently, 1-cm-thick layers of the gelatin blocks were examined as to their primer element contents (lead, barium, and antimony as discharge residues of Sinoxid® as well as zinc and titanium from Sintox®) by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As expected, the highest element concentrations were found in the initial parts of the bullet tracks, but also the distal sections contained detectable amounts of the respective primer elements. The same was true for amorphous soot and unburned/partly burned powder particles, which could be demonstrated even at the exit site. With the help of a high-speed motion camera it was shown that for a short time the temporary cavitation extends from the entrance to the exit thus facilitating the unlimited spread of discharge residues along the whole bullet path. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Grssoe Perdekamp M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Nadjem H.,University Hospital Freiburg | Merkel J.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Braunwarth R.,Freiburg Regional Council | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

Suicidal shots fired simultaneously to the head from two handguns are rare. The authors report about a recent case in which a Smith & Wesson cal. 9 mm pistol and a Smith & Wesson cal. .357 Magnum revolver were used. Sitting on a sofa, a 33-year-old man (member of a shooting club) fired two simultaneous shots to the head; the pistol held in the left hand was discharged into the left temple, and the revolver held in the right hand was fired into the mouth. Both weapons remained in the respective hands. An upside-down muzzle imprint in the left temporal region and recoil injuries of a mandibular incisor, and the lower lip indicated that both the pistol and the revolver had been held in an inverted manner at the time of discharge. Blood stains (backspatter) and gunshot residues were present on both firing hands, whereas forward spatter originating from the exit wounds was deposited on the wall behind the suicide's head. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Berger B.,Innsbruck Medical University | Berger C.,Innsbruck Medical University | Hecht W.,Justus Liebig University | Hellmann A.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | And 4 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014

To gain general acceptance forensic DNA testing in animals needs to improve standardization of analysis methods and data interpretation. Recently, the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) took particular care of this topic by publishing recommendations for forensic non-human DNA analysis following the successful example of human DNA analysis in order to provide a basis for harmonization of the still existing inter-laboratory variability. By following these recommendations we demonstrate the performance of two short tandem repeat (STR) multiplexes for forensic identity testing of canine biological material. Thirteen STRs and two sex-specific markers were selected and validated according to the ISFG guidelines. Population genetic parameters were calculated based on 295 dog samples collected in Austria (124) and Germany (171). A repeat-based nomenclature of the mainly tetrameric STRs and corresponding allelic ladders are presented. All 146 different alleles included in the ladders were sequenced for correct allele calling. Additionally, a canine cell line (DH82-D3167) was evaluated as standard reference material. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

PubMed | Kriminaltechnisches Institute and Landeskriminalamt Brandenburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science review | Year: 2015

In forensic science, soil, dust, and vegetable traces have as high a value as evidence as classical traces such as fingerprints or toolmarks. It is imperative that the potential information in these traces can be identified by a combination of analytical methods selected by a qualified expert. Experience has shown that the best results can be expected when all of the aspects of evidence, including physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological, are taken into consideration. This review provides information on successfully tried and tested methods in the forensic investigation of soil and vegetable material.

Hoar B.M.,University of Calgary | Eberhardt A.G.,University of Calgary | Eberhardt A.G.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Kutz S.J.,University of Calgary
Parasitology | Year: 2012

Larval inhibition is a common strategy of Trichostrongylidae nematodes that may increase survival of larvae during unfavourable periods and concentrate egg production when conditions are favourable for development and transmission. We investigated the propensity for larval inhibition in a population of Ostertagia gruehneri, the most common gastrointestinal Trichostrongylidae nematode of Rangifer tarandus. Initial experimental infections of 4 reindeer with O. gruehneri sourced from the Bathurst caribou herd in Arctic Canada suggested that the propensity for larval inhibition was 100%. In the summer of 2009 we infected 12 additional reindeer with the F1 and F2 generations of O. gruehneri sourced from the previously infected reindeer to further investigate the propensity of larval inhibition. The reindeer were divided into 2 groups and half were infected before the summer solstice (17 June) and half were infected after the solstice (16 July). Reindeer did not shed eggs until March 2010, i.e. 8 and 9 months post-infection. These results suggest obligate larval inhibition for at least 1 population of O. gruehneri, a phenomenon that has not been conclusively shown for any other trichostrongylid species. Obligate inhibition is likely to be an adaptation to both the Arctic environment and to a migratory host and may influence the ability of O. gruehneri to adapt to climate change. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Kunz S.N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Adamec J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Zinka B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Munzel D.,TU Munich | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Weimar B.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Herrmann D.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

There are different techniques for the restoration of erased markings in metals. Non-destructive methods are generally preferable. The only frequently used non-destructive method is the magnetic technique. The different kinds of magnetic restoration methods are discussed in the article. In the experiments described, the applicability of magneto-optical methods for the restoration of obliterated markings was examined. The results show that the methods are suitable and the required equipment does not cause high expenses. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

PubMed | Kriminaltechnisches Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science review | Year: 2015

Numerous techniques have been developed over the years in the examination of toolmarks and footwear impression. Recent development in the following aspects are described: shoemark enhancement techniques, new casting materials, comparison scanning electron microscopy, computerized identification of striations, and recovery of erased numbers in new metallic and polymeric materials. Furthermore, quality assurances and the duties of toolmark examiners are examine.

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