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Wiesbaden, Germany

Grssoe Perdekamp M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Nadjem H.,University Hospital Freiburg | Merkel J.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Braunwarth R.,Freiburg Regional Council | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

Suicidal shots fired simultaneously to the head from two handguns are rare. The authors report about a recent case in which a Smith & Wesson cal. 9 mm pistol and a Smith & Wesson cal. .357 Magnum revolver were used. Sitting on a sofa, a 33-year-old man (member of a shooting club) fired two simultaneous shots to the head; the pistol held in the left hand was discharged into the left temple, and the revolver held in the right hand was fired into the mouth. Both weapons remained in the respective hands. An upside-down muzzle imprint in the left temporal region and recoil injuries of a mandibular incisor, and the lower lip indicated that both the pistol and the revolver had been held in an inverted manner at the time of discharge. Blood stains (backspatter) and gunshot residues were present on both firing hands, whereas forward spatter originating from the exit wounds was deposited on the wall behind the suicide's head. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Linacre A.,Flinders University | Gusmao L.,University of Porto | Hecht W.,Justus Liebig University | Hellmann A.P.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | And 5 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Groe Perdekamp M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Arnold M.,University Hospital Freiburg | Merkel J.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Mierdel K.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

In contact shots, all the materials emerging from the muzzle (combustion gases, soot, powder grains, and metals from the primer) will be driven into the depth of the entrance wound and the following sections of the bullet track. The so-called "pocket" ("powder cavity") under the skin containing soot and gunpowder particles is regarded as a significant indicator of a contact entrance wound since one would expect that the quantity of GSR deposited along the bullet's path rapidly declines towards the exit hole. Nevertheless, experience has shown that soot, powder particles, and carboxyhemoglobin may be found not only in the initial part of the wound channel, but also far away from the entrance and even at the exit. In order to investigate the propagation of GSRs under standardized conditions, contact test shots were fired against composite models of pig skin and 25-cm-long gelatin blocks using 9-mm Luger pistol cartridges with two different primers (Sinoxid® and Sintox®). Subsequently, 1-cm-thick layers of the gelatin blocks were examined as to their primer element contents (lead, barium, and antimony as discharge residues of Sinoxid® as well as zinc and titanium from Sintox®) by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As expected, the highest element concentrations were found in the initial parts of the bullet tracks, but also the distal sections contained detectable amounts of the respective primer elements. The same was true for amorphous soot and unburned/partly burned powder particles, which could be demonstrated even at the exit site. With the help of a high-speed motion camera it was shown that for a short time the temporary cavitation extends from the entrance to the exit thus facilitating the unlimited spread of discharge residues along the whole bullet path. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Kunz S.N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Adamec J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Zinka B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Munzel D.,TU Munich | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Schwarz L.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute | Hermanowski M.-L.,Kriminaltechnisches Institute
Archiv fur Kriminologie | Year: 2011

Silver nitrate has been an established agent for the detection of latent fingerprints for some 120 years, and it was one of the few reagents suitable for use on porous surfaces until ninhydrin was introduced in forensics. The method is based on the reaction of silver ions with chlorides in the fingerprints, which are visualized in brown, violet or black. The literature describes many variations of the procedure, but the information provided is often vague and imprecise. The purpose of this study was to show whether this method can also be used on modem types of paper and how it should be applied. The results of the tests showed that silver nitrate solutions do work also on modem papers, but that they cannot be recommended as a standard, because the appearance of the prints and the paper background can strongly change in the course of time. The findings also do not justify the use of methanol-containing silver nitrate solutions in contrast to the variations based on water. For reasons of occupational safety, methanol, which is classified as poisonous, should not be used. The silver nitrate method may be taken into consideration, however, e.g. after the application of ninhydin, if there are hints that the potential fingerprints are not too old, have not been affected by moisture and if there are clues that the perpetrator perspired strongly whUe causing the prints. Source

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