Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
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PubMed | University of Strasbourg, Cochin University Hospital, Bichat Claude Bernard University Hospital, University of Angers and 12 more.
Type: | Journal: Critical care (London, England) | Year: 2016

The outcomes of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for acute manifestation of small-vessel vasculitis are poorly reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the mortality rate and prognostic factors of patients admitted to the ICU for acute small-vessel vasculitis.This retrospective, multicenter study was conducted from January 2001 to December 2014 in 20 ICUs in France. Patients were identified from computerized registers of each hospital using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). Inclusion criteria were (1) known or highly suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis (respectively, ICD-9 codes M31.3, M30.1, and M31.7), or anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease (ICD-9 codes N08.5X-005 or M31.0+); (2) admission to the ICU for the management of an acute manifestation of vasculitis; and (3) administration of a cyclophosphamide pulse in the ICU or within 48 h before admission to the ICU. The primary endpoint was assessment of mortality rate 90 days after admission to the ICU.Eighty-two patients at 20 centers were included, 94% of whom had a recent (<6 months) diagnosis of small-vessel vasculitis. Forty-four patients (54%) had granulomatosis with polyangiitis. The main reasons for admission were respiratory failure (34%) and pulmonary-renal syndrome (33%). Mechanical ventilation was required in 51% of patients, catecholamines in 31%, and renal replacement therapy in 71%. Overall mortality at 90 days was 18% and the mortality in ICU was 16 %. The main causes of death in the ICU were disease flare in 69% and infection in 31%. In univariable analysis, relevant factors associated with death in nonsurvivors compared with survivors were Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (median [interquartile range] 51 [38-82] vs. 36 [27-42], p = 0.005), age (67 years [62-74] vs. 58 years [40-68], p < 0.003), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on the day of cyclophosphamide administration (11 [6-12] vs. 6 [3-7], p = 0.0004), and delayed administration of cyclophosphamide (5 days [3-14] vs. 2 days [1-5], p = 0.0053).Patients admitted to the ICU for management of acute small-vessel vasculitis benefit from early, aggressive intensive care treatment, associated with an 18% death rate at 90 days.


PubMed | Louis Mourier University Hospital, University of Limoges, Hopital dEnfants de La Timone, University of Nantes and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JAMA pediatrics | Year: 2016

The procalcitonin (PCT) assay is an accurate screening test for identifying invasive bacterial infection (IBI); however, data on the PCT assay in very young infants are insufficient.To assess the diagnostic characteristics of the PCT assay for detecting serious bacterial infection (SBI) and IBI in febrile infants aged 7 to 91 days.A prospective cohort study that included infants aged 7 to 91 days admitted for fever to 15 French pediatric emergency departments was conducted for a period of 30 months (October 1, 2008, through March 31, 2011). The data management and analysis were performed from October 1, 2011, through October 31, 2014.The diagnostic characteristics of the PCT assay, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, white blood cell (WBC) count, and absolute neutrophil cell (ANC) count for detecting SBI and IBI were described and compared for the overall population and subgroups of infants according to the age and the duration of fever. Laboratory test cutoff values were calculated based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The SBIs were defined as a pathogenic bacteria in positive culture of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, or stool samples, including bacteremia and bacterial meningitis classified as IBIs.Among the 2047 infants included, 139 (6.8%) were diagnosed as having an SBI and 21 (1.0%) as having an IBI (11.0% and 1.7% of those with blood culture (n = 1258), respectively). The PCT assay offered an area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curve similar to that for CRP concentration for the detection of SBI (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.86; vs AUC, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.85; P=.70). The AUC ROC curve for the detection of IBI for the PCT assay was significantly higher than that for the CRP concentration (AUC, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; vs AUC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.89; P=.002). Using a cutoff value of 0.3 ng/mL for PCT and 20 mg/L for CRP, negative likelihood ratios were 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5) for identifying SBI and 0.1 (95% CI, 0.03-0.4) and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.7) for identifying IBI, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the subgroup of infants younger than 1 month and for those with fever lasting less than 6 hours.The PCT assay has better diagnostic accuracy than CRP measurement for detecting IBI; the 2 tests perform similarly for identifying SBI in febrile infants aged 7 to 91 days.


Barennes H.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | Barennes H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barennes H.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Sayavong E.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale | Pussard E.,Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: Hypoglycemia is a recognized feature of severe malaria but its diagnosis and management remain problematic in resource-limited settings. There is limited data on the burden and prognosis associated with glycemia dysregulation in non-neonate children in non-malaria areas. We prospectively assessed the abnormal blood glucose prevalence and the outcome and risk factors of deaths in critically ill children admitted to a national referral hospital in Laos. Methods: Consecutive children (1 month-15 years) admitted to the pediatric ward of Mahosot hospital, were categorized using the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). Blood glucose was assessed once on admission through a finger prick using a bedside glucometer. Glycemia levels: hypoglycemia: < 2.2 mmol/L (< 40 mg/dl), low glycemia: 2.2-4.4 mmol/L (40-79 mg/dl), euglycemia: 4.4-8.3 mmol/L (80-149 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia: > 8.3 mmol/L (≥150 mg/dl), were related to the IMCI algorithm and case fatality using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Of 350 children, 62.2% (n = 218) were severely ill and 49.1% (n = 172) had at least one IMCI danger sign. A total of 15 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.4-6.9) had hypoglycemia, 99 (28.2%, 95% CI: 23.6-33.3) low glycemia, 201 (57.4%, 95% CI: 52.0-62.6) euglycemia and 35 (10.0%, 95% CI: 7.0-13.6) hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia was associated with longer fasting (p = 0.001) and limited treatment before admission (p = 0.09). Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were associated with hypoxemia (SaO2) (p = 0.001). A total of 21 (6.0%) of the children died: 66.6% with hypoglycemic, 6.0% with low glycemic, 5.7% with hyperglycemic and 1.4% with euglycemic groups. A total of 9 (2.5%) deaths occurred during the first 24 hours of admission and 5 (1.7%) within 3 days of hospital discharge. Compared to euglycemic children, hypoglycemic and low glycemic children had a higher rate of early death (20%, p<0.001 and 5%, p = 0.008; respectively). They also had a higher risk of death (OR: 132; 95%CI: 29.0-596.5; p = 0.001; and OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.1-15.6; p = 0.02; respectively). In multivariate analyses, hypoglycemia (OR: 197; 95%CI: 33-1173.9), hypoxemia (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.4-20), presence of hepatomegaly (OR: 8.7; 95%CI: 2.0-37.6) and having an illiterate mother (OR: 25.9; 95%CI: 4.2-160.6) were associated with increased risk of death. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia is linked with a high risk of mortality for children in non malaria tropical settings. Blood sugar should be monitored and treatment provided for sick children, especially with danger signs and prolonged fasting. Further evaluations of intervention using thresholds including low glycemia is recommended in resource-limited settings. Research is also needed to determine the significance, prognosis and care of hyperglycemia. © 2016 Barennes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale and Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Hypoglycemia is a recognized feature of severe malaria but its diagnosis and management remain problematic in resource-limited settings. There is limited data on the burden and prognosis associated with glycemia dysregulation in non-neonate children in non-malaria areas. We prospectively assessed the abnormal blood glucose prevalence and the outcome and risk factors of deaths in critically ill children admitted to a national referral hospital in Laos.Consecutive children (1 month-15 years) admitted to the pediatric ward of Mahosot hospital, were categorized using the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). Blood glucose was assessed once on admission through a finger prick using a bedside glucometer. Glycemia levels: hypoglycemia: < 2.2 mmol/L (< 40 mg dl), low glycemia: 2.2-4.4 mmol/L (40-79 mg dl), euglycemia: 4.4-8.3 mmol/L (80-149 mg dl), and hyperglycemia: > 8.3 mmol/L (150 mg dl), were related to the IMCI algorithm and case fatality using univariate and multivariate analysis.Of 350 children, 62.2% (n = 218) were severely ill and 49.1% (n = 172) had at least one IMCI danger sign. A total of 15 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.4-6.9) had hypoglycemia, 99 (28.2%, 95%CI: 23.6-33.3) low glycemia, 201 (57.4%, 95% CI: 52.0-62.6) euglycemia and 35 (10.0%, 95% CI: 7.0-13.6) hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia was associated with longer fasting (p = 0.001) and limited treatment before admission (p = 0.09). Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were associated with hypoxemia (SaO2) (p = 0.001). A total of 21 (6.0%) of the children died: 66.6% with hypoglycemic, 6.0% with low glycemic, 5.7% with hyperglycemic and 1.4% with euglycemic groups. A total of 9 (2.5%) deaths occurred during the first 24 hours of admission and 5 (1.7%) within 3 days of hospital discharge. Compared to euglycemic children, hypoglycemic and low glycemic children had a higher rate of early death (20%, p<0.001 and 5%, p = 0.008; respectively). They also had a higher risk of death (OR: 132; 95%CI: 29.0-596.5; p = 0.001; and OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.1-15.6; p = 0.02; respectively). In multivariate analyses, hypoglycemia (OR: 197; 95%CI: 33-1173.9), hypoxemia (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.4-20), presence of hepatomegaly (OR: 8.7; 95%CI: 2.0-37.6) and having an illiterate mother (OR: 25.9; 95%CI: 4.2-160.6) were associated with increased risk of death.Hypoglycemia is linked with a high risk of mortality for children in non malaria tropical settings. Blood sugar should be monitored and treatment provided for sick children, especially with danger signs and prolonged fasting. Further evaluations of intervention using thresholds including low glycemia is recommended in resource-limited settings. Research is also needed to determine the significance, prognosis and care of hyperglycemia.


PubMed | Mermoz Private Hospital, Cochin University Hospital, University of Lausanne, University of Lyon and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert review of anti-infective therapy | Year: 2016

Biliary complications represent a turning point in the course of Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE). We conducted a European survey to collect data on the current usage and results of perendoscopic interventions (PEIs) for their treatment.Patients characteristics and follow-up until January 31st, 2015 were recorded using an online questionnaire.From 18 centers 129 PEIs were analyzed in 38 patients; 139 plastic stents were inserted during 85 PEIs; median time between stent placements was significantly longer when 3 stents or more were placed. Initial symptoms disappeared in 95% and long-term bile duct patency was obtained in 73% of cases. Cholangitis was a more frequent complication of the PEIs (10%) than in other indications; intensive lavage of the bile ducts may prevent this complication.European centers use perendoscopic biliary drainage as an efficient and safe alternative to surgery to treat AE biliary complications. Insertion of multiple plastic stents delays stent occlusion and leads to effective and prolonged bile duct patency.


PubMed | Jeanne Of Flandre University Hospital, University of Nantes, University of Angers, Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC pregnancy and childbirth | Year: 2015

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality, accounting for one quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. Estimates of its incidence in the literature vary widely, from 3 % to 15 % of deliveries. Uterotonics after birth are the only intervention that has been shown to be effective in preventing PPH. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has been investigated as a potentially useful complement to uterotonics for prevention because it has been proved to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding in trauma patients, and menstrual blood loss. Randomized controlled trials for PPH prevention after cesarean (n = 10) and vaginal (n = 2) deliveries show that women who received TXA had significantly less postpartum blood loss without any increase in their rate of severe adverse effects. However, the quality of these trials was poor and they were not designed to test the effect of TXA on the reduction of PPH incidence. Large, adequately powered, multicenter randomized controlled trials are required before the widespread use of TXA to prevent PPH can be recommended.A multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial will be performed. It will involve 4000 women in labor for a planned vaginal singleton delivery, at a term 35 weeks. Treatment (either TXA 1 g or placebo) will be administered intravenously just after birth. Prophylactic oxytocin will be administered to all women. The primary outcome will be the incidence of PPH, defined by blood loss 500 mL, measured with a graduated collector bag. This study will have 80 % power to show a 30 % reduction in the incidence of PPH, from 10.0 % to 7.0 %.In addition to prophylactic uterotonic administration, a complementary component of the management of third stage of labor acting on the coagulation process may be useful in preventing PPH. TXA is a promising candidate drug, inexpensive, easy to administer, and simple to add to the routine management of deliveries in hospitals. This large, adequately powered, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled trial seeks to determine if the risk-benefit ratio favors the routine use of TXA after delivery to prevent PPH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02302456 (November 17, 2014).


Benoudiba F.,Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital | Toulgoat F.,University of Nantes | Sarrazin J.-L.,Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital
Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging | Year: 2013

The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of the Éditions françaises de radiologie.


PubMed | Montpellier University, University of Nantes, Kremlin Bicetre University Hospital, Montpellier University Hospital Center and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Intensive care medicine | Year: 2017

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants.A randomized controlled trial was performed in five pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) to compare 7cmHFrom November 2014 to March 2015, 142 infants were included and equally distributed into groups. The risk difference of -19% (95% CI -35 to -3%) did not allow the conclusion of HFNC noninferiority (p=0.707). Superiority analysis suggested a relative risk of success 1.63 (95% CI 1.02-2.63) higher with nCPAP. The success rate with the alternative respiratory support, intubation rate, durations of noninvasive and invasive ventilation, skin lesions, and length of PICU stay were comparable between groups. No patient had air leak syndrome or died.In young infants with moderate to severe AVB, initial management with HFNC did not have a failure rate similar to that of nCPAP. This clinical trial was recorded in the National Library of Medicine registry (NCT 02457013).


De Tayrac R.,University of Nimes | Cornille A.,University of Nimes | Eglin G.,Clinique Champeau | Guilbaud O.,Chartres Hospital | And 3 more authors.
International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction | Year: 2013

Introduction and hypothesis To compare the efficacy of a collagen-coated polypropylene mesh and anterior colporrhaphy in the treatment of stage 2 or more anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Prospective, randomized, multicenter study conducted between April 2005 and December 2009. The principal endpoint was the recurrence rate of stage 2 or more anterior vaginal wall prolapse 12 months after surgery. Secondary endpoints consisted of functional results and mesh-related morbidity. Results One hundred and forty-seven patients were included, randomized and analyzed: 72 in the anterior colporrhaphy group and 75 in the mesh group. The anatomical success rate was significantly higher in the mesh group (89 %) than in the colporrhaphy group (64 %) (p=0.0006). Anatomical and functional recurrence was also less frequent in the mesh group (31.3 % vs 52.2 %, p=0.007). Two patients (2.8 %) were reoperated on in the colporrhaphy group for anterior vaginal wall prolapse recurrence. No significant difference was noted regarding minor complications. An erosion rate of 9.5 % was noted. De novo dyspareunia occurred in 1/14 patients in the colporrhaphy group and in 3/13 patients in the mesh group. An analysis of the quality of life questionnaires showed an overall improvement in both groups, with no statistical difference between them. Satisfaction rates were high in both groups (92 % in the colporrhaphy group and 96 % in the mesh group). Conclusion Trans-obturator Ugytex® mesh used to treat anterior vaginal wall prolapse gives better 1-year anatomical results than traditional anterior colporrhaphy, but with small a increase in morbidity in the mesh group. © The International Urogynecological Association 2013.

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