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Sharma R.C.,ICARDA | Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Akin B.,CIMMYT | Bespalova L.,Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

The International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP)—a collaboration between the government of Turkey, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)—develops and globally distributes improved winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm. The Winter Wheat Eastern European Regional Yield Trial was conducted by IWWIP during 1998–2005 using elite lines and varieties from IWWIP, Eastern Europe (EE), the United States, and Central and West Asia (CWA). This study analyzed data to identify superior genotypes and key locations that could be useful for future international collaboration on winter wheat. Grain yield and agronomic traits of 422 elite breeding lines and new varieties from 17 countries were evaluated across 39 locations. Superior genotypes and key environments for grain yield were determined using genotype and genotype × environment biplot analyses. Many superior genotypes were identified for both EE and CWA, and 11 genotypes showed high, stable grain yield across the regions. The most representative and discriminating sites for grain yield were Konya and Eskisehir, Turkey (overall); Edirne, Turkey (CWA); and Dobrich, Bulgaria (EE). These findings represent a comprehensive analysis of yield and stability of a large, globally important set of winter wheat genotypes and growing locations, which may be useful for national and international winter wheat improvement programs. © Crop Science Society of America.

Morgounov A.,CIMMYT. P.K. | Ablova I.,Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute | Babayants O.,Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute | Babayants L.,Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute | And 5 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Leaf rust represents the major threat to wheat production in Russia and Ukraine. It has been present for many years and epidemics of the pathogen occur in different regions on both winter and spring wheat. In some regions there is evidence of more frequent epidemics, probably due to higher precipitation as a result of climate change. There is evidence that the virulence of the leaf rust population in Ukraine and European Russia and on winter wheat and spring wheat is similar. The pathogen population structure in Western Siberia is also similar to the European part, although there are some significant differences based on the genes employed in different regions. Ukrainian wheat breeders mostly rely on major resistance genes from wide crosses and have succeeded in developing resistant varieties. The North Caucasus winter wheat breeding programs apply the strategy of deploying varieties with different types of resistance and genes. This approach resulted in decreased leaf rust incidence in the region. Genes Lr23 and Lr19 deployed in spring wheat in the Volga region were rapidly overcome by the pathogen. There are continuing efforts to incorporate resistance from wild species. The first spring wheat leaf rust resistant varieties released in Western Siberia possessed gene LrTR which protected the crop for 10-15 years, but was eventually broken in 2007. Slow rusting is being utilized in several breeding programs in Russia and Ukraine, but has not become a major strategy. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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