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Weingarten, Germany

To ensure ecological passability at dams and weir power plants is one of the main development goals of the Water Framework Directive for river systems. But using conventional fish migration facilities on waterways involves losses of the production of renewable energy. The patented newly created fish sluice with pressure chamber and energetic utilisation at the dam Höllenstein on the river Schwarzer Regen in the Bavarian Forest has been optimized based on the first experiences and the fish ecological monitoring programs. Therefore the method in Höllenstein has fulfilled both ecological improvements of the river systems and the expansion of power generation from renewables.

The 750 MW hard coal-fired power plant was commissioned at the Bexbach site in 1983. The plant was designed for the sole combustion of local Saarland hard coal. Due to changing general conditions, the plant had to be adjusted to the combustion of world market coal. Upgrading of the pulveriser/dryer was among the measures taken. After checking of several alternatives, it was decided to apply gas surface burners. It was an absolute novelty to employ a pulveriser/dryer in a power plant of that design which gave the project a pilot character. Already when commissioning the new pulverisers, it was realised that the retrofit exceeded expectations.

Since Legionella were discovered as being potentially hazardous in the mid 1970s, it has been in the focus of microbiological research. As a result of this work, hot water systems have been identified as a possible place of colonisation as well as hazard source. Power plants with their different hot water systems could also be at risk regarding legionella colonisation. The new German Drinking Water Directive, issued in 2011, states that power plants have not yet been obligated to monitor legionella in hot water systems. However, legionella contaminations are observed very sensitively by public. Technical guidelines as well as official directives require more and more legionella monitoring of hot water systems. Standardised analytical methods have been established in every day laboratory work. However, it has been shown that results became unreliable due to matrix effects of different hot water systems. Adaptation and optimisation of analytical methods to the specific hot water samples are required from case to case. Power plant operators should face this challenge to be well prepared for new requirements.

Linth-Limmern AG (KLL), a partner of Axpo AG and the canton of Glarus, is presently realising the "Linthal 2015" project. The new pumped storage facility is being created inside a mountain and water will be pumped upwards through around 630m from the lower Lake Limmern up to the higher Lake Mutt, from where it will be fed through two headrace tunnels to generate electricity as required. The new hydro-electric plant should guarantee a pump and turbine output of 1 (000MW respectively [1], To realise the project with a value of over two billion Swiss francs, the Swiss energy group invited tenders for various different lots. The Kraftwerk Limmern Joint Venture (AKWL), consisting of Swiss Marti and Toneatti construction companies, was appointed the contract for the largest lot. This involves all excavation work onaccess and water tunnels and caverns, as well as the building of the Lake Mutt dam. The lot was awarded in 2009 with a total value of 700 million Swiss francs. In keeping with the building programme, construction will take place 2009 to 2016. By the middle of 2012 excavation work was, to a great extent, completed and the site advanced to the concrete lining stage. This article is about the contract for lot A2, the special challenges involved, the organisation of the construction work and infrastructure and excavation from the contractor's viewpoint: A title that was also given to the building site book dedicated to the employees and presented to them on the occasion of the St Barbara celebrations in 2011 [2].

Neu V.,University of Salzburg | Bielow C.,Free University of Berlin | Gostomski I.,Saarland University | Wintringer R.,Saarland University | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Rapid and efficient quality control according to the public authority regulations is mandatory to guarantee safety of the pharmaceuticals and to save resources in the pharmaceutical industry. In the case of so-called "grandfather products" like the synthetic thyroid hormone thyroxine, strict regulations enforce a detailed chemical analysis in order to characterize potentially toxic or pharmacologically relevant impurities. We report a straightforward workflow for the comprehensive impurity profiling of synthetic thyroid hormones and impurities employing ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Five different batches of synthetic thyroxin were analyzed resulting in the detection of 71 impurities within 3 min total analysis time. Structural elucidation of the compounds was accomplished via a combination of accurate mass measurements, computer based calculations of molecular formulas, multistage high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMSn), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which enabled the identification of 71 impurities, of which 47 have been unknown so far. Thirty of the latter were structurally elucidated, including products of deiodination, aliphatic chain oxidation, as well as dimeric compounds as new class of thyroid hormone derivatives. Limits of detection for the thyroid compounds were in the 6 ng/mL range for negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection in full scan mode. Within day and day-to-day repeatabilities of retention times and peak areas were below 0.5% and 3.5% R.SD. The performance characteristics of the method in terms of robustness and information content clearly show that UHPLC-HRMS is adequate for the rapid and reliable detection, identification, and semiquantitative determination of trace levels of impurities in synthetic pharmaceuticals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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