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de Greck M.,University Medicine | de Greck M.,University of Leipzig | Bolter A.F.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Lehmann L.,Klinikum Bielefeld | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which - according to psychoanalytical concepts - plays an important role in somatoform disorder). Psychodynamic psychotherapy aims at increasing the understanding of emotional conflicts as well as uncovering repressed emotions. We were interested, whether brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus normalized after (inpatient) multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy. Using fMRI, subjects were scanned while they shared the emotional states of presented facial stimuli expressing anger, disgust, joy and a neutral expression; distorted stimuli with unrecognizable content served as control condition. 15 somatoform disorder patients were scanned twice, pre and post multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy; in addition, 15 age-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Effects of psychotherapy on hemodynamic responses were analyzed implementing two approaches: (i) an a priori region of interest approach and (ii) a voxelwise whole brain analysis. Both analyses revealed increased hemodynamic responses in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus (and other regions) after multimodal psychotherapy in the contrast 'empathy with anger'-'control'. Our results are in line with psychoanalytical concepts about somatoform disorder. They suggest the parahippocampal gyrus is crucially involved in the neurobiological mechanisms which underly the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients. © 2013 De_greck, Bölter, Lehmann, Ulrich, Stockum, Enzi, Hoffmann, Tempelmann, Beutel, Frommer and Northoff.

Athanasoulia A.P.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Sievers C.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Ising M.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Brockhaus A.C.,Kraepelinstrasse | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Introduction: Treatment with dopamine agonists in patients with prolactin (PRL) adenomas and Parkinson's disease is associated with central side effects. Central side effects may depend on a substance's ability to pass the blood-brain barrier, which can be actively controlled by transporter molecules such as the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Materials and methods: We aimed to determine whether cabergoline is transported by the P-gp and whether polymorphisms of its encoding ABCB1 gene predict central side effects of cabergoline therapy in patients with PRL adenomas. i) In an experimental mouse model lacking the homologues of the human ABCB1 gene (Abcb1ab double knockout mouse model), we examined whether cabergoline is a substrate of the P-gp using eight mutant and eight wild-type mice. ii) In a human case-control study including 79 patients with PRL adenomas treated with cabergoline at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, we investigated the association of four selected ABCB1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1045642, rs2032582, rs2032583 and rs2235015), with the occurrence of central side effects under cabergoline therapy. Results: i) In the experimental mouse model, we observed that brain concentrations of cabergoline were tenfold higher in the mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates, implying that cabergoline is indeed a substrate of the transporter P-gp at the blood-brain barrier level. ii) In the human study, we observed significant negative associations under cabergoline for the C-carriers and heterozygous CT individuals of SNP rs1045642 with two central side effects (frequency of fatigue and sleep disorders) and for the G-carriers of SNP rs2032582 with the enhancement of dizziness. For the SNPs rs2235015 and rs2032583, no associations with central side effects under cabergoline were found. Discussion : This is the first study demonstrating that individual ABCB1 gene polymorphisms, reflecting a different expression and function of the P-gp, could predict the occurrence of central side effects under cabergoline. Our findings can be viewed as a step into personalised therapy in PRL adenoma patients. © 2012 European Society of Endocrinology.

Athanasoulia A.P.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Sievers C.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Uhr M.,Kraepelinstrasse | Ising M.,Kraepelinstrasse | And 2 more authors.
Pituitary | Year: 2014

Treatment with dopamine agonists in patients with prolactinomas has been associated with weight loss in short term studies. However, long-term studies on weight changes are lacking. Taq1A is a restriction fragment length polymorphism considered as a gene marker for the DRD2 gene. The presence of at least one A1 allele is linked to reduced brain dopaminergic activity due to reduced receptor binding and lower density of the dopamine 2 receptor. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that the dopaminergic treatment in prolactinoma patients leads to sustained weight loss and that the presence of diminished weight loss response under dopamine agonists is associated with the minor A1 allele of Taq1A. We included n = 44 patients (17 male and 27 female, 26 macroadenomas and 18 microadenomas) with prolactinomas treated with dopamine agonists. Outcome measures were weight and body mass index (BMI) change under dopaminergic treatment after 2 years with regard to Taq1A status and sex. We observed that the dopaminergic treatment leads to a significant mean weight loss of 3.1 ± 6.25 kg after 2 years. Regarding Taq1A polymorphisms, 21 patients were carriers of at least one A1 allele and 23 patients had a genotype of A2/A2. However, the presence of the A1 allele was neither associated with the mean BMI at baseline nor with an altered weight loss response under dopamine agonist therapy. Our results implicate that the dopaminergic treatment leads to a sustained weight loss in patients with prolactinomas after 2 years. However, there was no association to the A1 allele of Taq1A, observation that needs to be analysed in larger cohorts. © Springer Science+Business Media 2013.

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