Szokol B.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. |
Gyulavari P.,Semmelweis University |
Kurko I.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. |
Baska F.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. |
And 15 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014
Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is one of the leading cancer types worldwide. Application of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads to acquired resistance by secondary EGFR mutations or by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) gene. Although several EGFR and c-Met inhibitors have been reported, potent dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors, which can overcome this latter resistance mechanism, have hitherto not been published and have not reached clinical trials. In the present study we have identified dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors and designed novel N-[4-(quinolin-4-yloxy)-phenyl]-biarylsulfonamide derivatives, which inhibit the c-Met receptor and both the wild-type and the activating mutant EGFR kinases in nanomolar range. We have demonstrated by Western blot analysis that compound 10 inhibits EGFR and c-Met phosphorylation at cellular level and effectively inhibits viability of the NSCLC cell lines. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Micsik T.,Semmelweis University |
Lorincz A.,Semmelweis University |
Lorincz A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Mersich T.,Uzsoki Teaching Hospital |
And 13 more authors.
Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2015
Background: The ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC)-transporter MultiDrug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR1) and Multidrug Resistance Related Protein 1 (MRP1) are expressed on the surface of enterocytes, which has led to the belief that these high capacity transporters are responsible for modulating chemosensitvity of colorectal cancer. Several immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies have provided controversial results in regards to the expression levels of these two ABC-transporters in colorectal cancer. Our study was designed to determine the yet uninvestigated functional activity of MDR1 and MRP1 transporters in normal human enterocytes compared to colorectal cancer cells from surgical biopsies. Methods: 100 colorectal cancer and 28 adjacent healthy mucosa samples were obtained by intraoperative surgical sampling. Activity of MDR1 and MRP1 of viable epithelial and cancer cells were determined separately with the modified calcein-assay for multidrug resistance activity and sufficient data of 73 cancer and 11 healthy mucosa was analyzed statistically. Results: Significantly decreased mean MDR1 activity was found in primary colorectal cancer samples compared to normal mucosa, while mean MRP1 activity showed no significant change. Functional activity was not affected by gender, age, stage or grade and localization of the tumor. Conclusion: We found lower MDR activity in cancer cells versus adjacent, apparently, healthy control tissue, thus, contrary to general belief, MDR activity seems not to play a major role in primary drug resistance, but might rather explain preferential/selective activity of Irinotecan and/or Oxaliplatin. Still, this picture might be more complex since chemotherapy by itself might alter MDR activity, and furthermore, today limited data is available about MDR activity of cancer stem cells in colorectal cancers. © Micsik et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Schwab R.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. |
Petak I.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. |
Petak I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Kollar M.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. |
And 8 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014
The initial radiotherapy of a 73 years old Caucasian male patient with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma was terminated due to severe pericarditis. Subsequently, the tumor sample was analyzed for possible targets with comprehensive molecular diagnostics. EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA genes were wild type, ALK and ROS1 were negative for rearrangement, but c-MET was amplified by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The kinase inhibitor crizotinib is already in clinical use for the treatment of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancers, but it is also known to be a potent c-MET inhibitor. The patient was treated with the standard dose of twice a day 250. mg crizotinib as a monotherapy. Major partial response to therapy was confirmed by chest CT and PET/CT after 8 weeks on therapy. C-MET expression is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to EGFR inhibitors. This case may indicate that c-MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be an effective targeted treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma patients, and future clinical trials should be expanded for this patient group as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Balla P.,Semmelweis University |
Moskovszky L.,Semmelweis University |
Sapi Z.,Semmelweis University |
Forsyth R.,Ghent University |
And 12 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2011
Aims: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in bone remodelling. The aim was to determine whether EGFR protein expression contributes to the aggressiveness and recurrence potential of giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB), an osteolytic primary bone tumour that can exhibit markedly variable clinical behaviour. Methods and results: Immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarrays (TMA) of 231 primary, 97 recurrent, 17 metastatic and 26 malignant GCTBs was performed using TMA analysis software and whole digital slides allowing validated scoring. EGFR expression was restricted to neoplastic stromal cells and was significantly more frequent in recurrent (71 of 92; 77%) than in non-recurrent GCTBs (86 of 162; 53%) (P=0.002); and in clinicoradiologically aggressive (31 of 43; 72%) than latent (27 of 54; 50%) cases (P=0.034). Detecting phosphotyrosine epitopes pY1068 and -pY1173 indicated active EGFR signalling, and finding EGFR ligands EGF and transforming growth factor-α restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage suggested paracrine EGFR activation in stromal cells. In functional studies EGF supported proliferation of GCTB stromal cells, and the addition of EGF and macrophage-colony stimulating factor promoted osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion: In GCTB, EGFR signalling in neoplastic stromal cells may contribute to disease progression through promoting stromal cell proliferation and osteoclastogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
Szabo B.,Semmelweis University |
Nelhubel G.A.,Semmelweis University |
Nelhubel G.A.,National Institute of Oncology |
Karpati A.,Semmelweis University |
And 15 more authors.
Oral Oncology | Year: 2011
The significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is well studied in a number of different tumors, but limited data is available with regard to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Since anti-EGFR therapies are currently under investigation in these malignancies as well, comprehensive information about the alteration of EGFR in HNSCC is necessary to design the most appropriate therapeutic protocols. We examined retrospectively the gene copy number of EGFR by FISH and the protein expression by immunohistochemistry using different epitope-specific antibodies in paraffin-embedded primary tumors of five different regions, from 71 HNSCC patients who had not been treated with anti-EGFR therapy. In seven cases corresponding lymph node metastases were also available for comparative analyses. We also determined the mutational status of tyrosine kinase (TK) domain (exon 19 and 21) and the extracellular deletion mutation (vIII) of EGFR, the KRAS mutation at codon 12 and the presence of HPV infection. Eight of the 71 cases (11.3%) showed EGFR gene amplification (most of them localized into the hypopharyngeal region) and the increased gene copy number (amplification + polysomy) was 43.7%. Despite pronounced intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR protein expression being found, the high EGFR expression correlated with poor prognosis. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of EGFR was associated with prolonged survival. No mutations in the TK domain of EGFR were found in any of the HNSCC patients and only two cases were KRAS mutant at codon 12. We detected vIII deletion mutation of EGFR in 21% of the samples, but there was no statistically significant correlation between the presence of vIII mutant form and patient survival. EGFR vIII mutation was, however, associated with increased gene copy number. Fourteen of 71 cases (19.7%) were HPV-positive and the incidence of infection showed a decreasing tendency from the oral cavity towards the larynx. Interestingly, in contrast to previous findings, we could not observe improved survival in HPV-positive patients compared to non-infected patients, most probably due to the fact that the majority of these HNSCC patients were smokers and alcohol consumers. In conclusion, we found that increased EGFR protein levels and gene copy numbers (not gene amplification alone) have prognostic significance in the investigated HNSCC patient population. However, the relatively high incidence of the EGFR-vIII mutant form warrants careful therapeutic decision-making when choosing between different anti-EGFR treatment options. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dunai Z.A.,Semmelweis University |
Dunai Z.A.,National Institute of Oncology |
Imre G.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Barna G.,Semmelweis University |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme. © 2012 Dunai et al.
PubMed | Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Matrahaza Healthcare Center and University Teaching Hospital, Semmelweis University and KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd.
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2014
The initial radiotherapy of a 73 years old Caucasian male patient with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma was terminated due to severe pericarditis. Subsequently, the tumor sample was analyzed for possible targets with comprehensive molecular diagnostics. EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA genes were wild type, ALK and ROS1 were negative for rearrangement, but c-MET was amplified by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The kinase inhibitor crizotinib is already in clinical use for the treatment of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancers, but it is also known to be a potent c-MET inhibitor. The patient was treated with the standard dose of twice a day 250 mg crizotinib as a monotherapy. Major partial response to therapy was confirmed by chest CT and PET/CT after 8 weeks on therapy. C-MET expression is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to EGFR inhibitors. This case may indicate that c-MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be an effective targeted treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma patients, and future clinical trials should be expanded for this patient group as well.
PubMed | KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd, Bacs Kiskun County Hospital and Semmelweis University
Type: | Journal: Diagnostic pathology | Year: 2015
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic disease leading to decreased quality of life with a rather variable response rate to Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs. Methotrexate (MTX) is the gold standard therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis. The Multidrug resistance Related Protein and Multi Drug Resistance protein 1, also called P-glycoprotein-170 transporters can alter the intracellular concentration of different drugs. Methotrexate is an MRP1 substrate and thus the functional activity of MRP1 might have a clinical impact on the efficiency of the Methotrexate-therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.We have compared the functional Multidrug Activity Factors (MAF) of the MDR1 and MRP1 transporters of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of 59 Rheumatoid Arthritis patients with various response rate to MTX-therapy (MTX-responder, MTX-resistant and MTX-intolerant RA-groups) and 47 non-RA controls in six different leukocyte subpopulations (neutrophil leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ cells). There was a decreased MAF of RA patients compared to non- Rheumatoid Arthritis patients and healthy controls in the leukocyte subpopulations. There was a significant difference between the MAF values of the MTX-responder and MTX intolerant groups. But we have not found significant differences between the MAF values of the MTX-responder and MTX-resistant Rheumatoid Arthritis -groups.Our results suggest that MDR1 and MRP1 functional activity does not seem to affect the response rate to MTX-therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis-patients, but it might be useful in predicting MTX-side effects. We have demonstrated the decreased functional MDR-activity on almost 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, which can be interpreted as a sign of the immune-suppressive effect of the MTX-treatment.
PubMed | KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature reviews. Drug discovery | Year: 2010
In the 1990s, the breast cancer drug trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech/Roche)--an antibody specific for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ERBB2)--was approved based on trials in which HER2 expression levels were used to select patients in clinical trials. This provided support for analogous efforts for drugs that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the development of these drugs, such as cetuximab (Erbitux; Bristol-Myers Squibb/Lilly) and gefitinib (Iressa; AstraZeneca), has revealed that EGFR expression is an insufficient and unreliable biomarker to select patients for EGFR-targeted therapies in both lung and colon cancer. Indeed, evidence on patient populations that are likely to respond to such therapies, on the basis of specific mutations in proteins of the targeted pathway, has only recently been clinically validated and incorporated into some of the drug labels. This article highlights lessons learned from the development of the first drugs targeting the EGFR family and discusses strategies to decrease the risk of failure in clinical development by more effectively integrating molecular diagnostics into anticancer drug discovery.