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Szokol B.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. | Gyulavari P.,Semmelweis University | Kurko I.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. | Baska F.,Vichem Chemie Research Ltd. | And 15 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is one of the leading cancer types worldwide. Application of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads to acquired resistance by secondary EGFR mutations or by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) gene. Although several EGFR and c-Met inhibitors have been reported, potent dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors, which can overcome this latter resistance mechanism, have hitherto not been published and have not reached clinical trials. In the present study we have identified dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors and designed novel N-[4-(quinolin-4-yloxy)-phenyl]-biarylsulfonamide derivatives, which inhibit the c-Met receptor and both the wild-type and the activating mutant EGFR kinases in nanomolar range. We have demonstrated by Western blot analysis that compound 10 inhibits EGFR and c-Met phosphorylation at cellular level and effectively inhibits viability of the NSCLC cell lines. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Schwab R.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. | Petak I.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. | Petak I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kollar M.,KPS Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare Services Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

The initial radiotherapy of a 73 years old Caucasian male patient with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma was terminated due to severe pericarditis. Subsequently, the tumor sample was analyzed for possible targets with comprehensive molecular diagnostics. EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA genes were wild type, ALK and ROS1 were negative for rearrangement, but c-MET was amplified by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The kinase inhibitor crizotinib is already in clinical use for the treatment of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancers, but it is also known to be a potent c-MET inhibitor. The patient was treated with the standard dose of twice a day 250. mg crizotinib as a monotherapy. Major partial response to therapy was confirmed by chest CT and PET/CT after 8 weeks on therapy. C-MET expression is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to EGFR inhibitors. This case may indicate that c-MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be an effective targeted treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma patients, and future clinical trials should be expanded for this patient group as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Balla P.,Semmelweis University | Moskovszky L.,Semmelweis University | Sapi Z.,Semmelweis University | Forsyth R.,Ghent University | And 12 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2011

Aims: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in bone remodelling. The aim was to determine whether EGFR protein expression contributes to the aggressiveness and recurrence potential of giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB), an osteolytic primary bone tumour that can exhibit markedly variable clinical behaviour. Methods and results: Immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarrays (TMA) of 231 primary, 97 recurrent, 17 metastatic and 26 malignant GCTBs was performed using TMA analysis software and whole digital slides allowing validated scoring. EGFR expression was restricted to neoplastic stromal cells and was significantly more frequent in recurrent (71 of 92; 77%) than in non-recurrent GCTBs (86 of 162; 53%) (P=0.002); and in clinicoradiologically aggressive (31 of 43; 72%) than latent (27 of 54; 50%) cases (P=0.034). Detecting phosphotyrosine epitopes pY1068 and -pY1173 indicated active EGFR signalling, and finding EGFR ligands EGF and transforming growth factor-α restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage suggested paracrine EGFR activation in stromal cells. In functional studies EGF supported proliferation of GCTB stromal cells, and the addition of EGF and macrophage-colony stimulating factor promoted osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion: In GCTB, EGFR signalling in neoplastic stromal cells may contribute to disease progression through promoting stromal cell proliferation and osteoclastogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited. Source

Dunai Z.A.,Semmelweis University | Dunai Z.A.,National Institute of Oncology | Imre G.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Barna G.,Semmelweis University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme. © 2012 Dunai et al. Source

Szabo B.,Semmelweis University | Nelhubel G.A.,Semmelweis University | Nelhubel G.A.,National Institute of Oncology | Karpati A.,Semmelweis University | And 15 more authors.
Oral Oncology | Year: 2011

The significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is well studied in a number of different tumors, but limited data is available with regard to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Since anti-EGFR therapies are currently under investigation in these malignancies as well, comprehensive information about the alteration of EGFR in HNSCC is necessary to design the most appropriate therapeutic protocols. We examined retrospectively the gene copy number of EGFR by FISH and the protein expression by immunohistochemistry using different epitope-specific antibodies in paraffin-embedded primary tumors of five different regions, from 71 HNSCC patients who had not been treated with anti-EGFR therapy. In seven cases corresponding lymph node metastases were also available for comparative analyses. We also determined the mutational status of tyrosine kinase (TK) domain (exon 19 and 21) and the extracellular deletion mutation (vIII) of EGFR, the KRAS mutation at codon 12 and the presence of HPV infection. Eight of the 71 cases (11.3%) showed EGFR gene amplification (most of them localized into the hypopharyngeal region) and the increased gene copy number (amplification + polysomy) was 43.7%. Despite pronounced intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR protein expression being found, the high EGFR expression correlated with poor prognosis. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of EGFR was associated with prolonged survival. No mutations in the TK domain of EGFR were found in any of the HNSCC patients and only two cases were KRAS mutant at codon 12. We detected vIII deletion mutation of EGFR in 21% of the samples, but there was no statistically significant correlation between the presence of vIII mutant form and patient survival. EGFR vIII mutation was, however, associated with increased gene copy number. Fourteen of 71 cases (19.7%) were HPV-positive and the incidence of infection showed a decreasing tendency from the oral cavity towards the larynx. Interestingly, in contrast to previous findings, we could not observe improved survival in HPV-positive patients compared to non-infected patients, most probably due to the fact that the majority of these HNSCC patients were smokers and alcohol consumers. In conclusion, we found that increased EGFR protein levels and gene copy numbers (not gene amplification alone) have prognostic significance in the investigated HNSCC patient population. However, the relatively high incidence of the EGFR-vIII mutant form warrants careful therapeutic decision-making when choosing between different anti-EGFR treatment options. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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