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Jadavpur, India

Contaminated hands play a major role in fecal-oral transmission of diseases. In 1847, Dr Semmelweis Ignac pointed to the link between infection and unclean hands, and demonstrated that washing hands could reduce transmission of puerperal fever (child birth fever), a dreaded disease with high mortality in those days. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the extent of germs present in hand, and also the students' perception on hand washing. This was assessed by questionnaire as well as by collection of swab from hand and performing bacteriological culture in the laboratory. In regard to students' perception about the dirty areas of the hands, it was observed that majority (78%) felt palm was likely to be more dirty while less than 70% felt that web spaces could harbor dirt. Almost 86% reported that they washed hands before eating lunch, but only 21.3% said they always used soap while 47.3% never used it. Availability of soap all the time in the school was reported by only 18.4% students. The swabs of 61% children showed potential pathogens. The commonest of these was Staphylococcus aureus which was seen in 44% samples. The students' hands were contaminated before taking food. Although they washed hands before meals, they hardly used soap due to non-availability of soap. The school authority should be asked to keep soaps in the toilets for hand washing. Source

Panda S.,KPC Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2010

Scleroderma is a set of rare connective tissue diseases of unknown etiology. It is characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin. Scleroderma is divided into two main subgroups: systemic and localized. The systemic form, also known as systemic sclerosis, involves diffuse skin involvement associated with fibrotic changes in internal organs. Juvenile localized scleroderma is a more common entity and is usually confined to a specific region of the body with no internal organ involvement. Therapeutics are divided into three main subgroups for juvenile systemic sclerosis: antifibrotics, anti-inflammatories, and vasodilators. For localized disease, anti-inflammatories, vitamin D analogues, and UV irradiation have been investigated. The rarity of scleroderma in children and the self-limiting nature of the disease together make randomized controlled trials very difficult. Therefore, most data on therapeutic modalities for this condition have to be extrapolated from studies conducted on adults. International cooperation, following a standardized operation protocol, is needed to validate these and future interventions such as autologous stem cell transplant and cytokine-directed therapies. Source

Panda S.,KPC Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2010

Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. Source

Gandhi U.V.,KPC Medical College
Journal of Prosthodontic Research | Year: 2014

A person with a basic bachelors degree, BDS, from a college/university recognized by the Dental Council of India (DCI) becomes eligible for a Master of Dental Surgery (MDS) in prosthodontics at a college/university recognized by DCI. For this three (3) years Programme of Master of Dental Surgery course with a dissertation, the student/resident has to go through a syllabus as set by the university and approved by the DCI. The continued official approval/certification thereafter is not present in India but all dentists have to get 20 Continued Education points every year for renewal of their DCI registration (though it's only on trial basis right now). Although prosthodontists are officially approved in India but still the common man does not recognize who a prosthodontist is because of lack of awareness. Most general dentists do their prosthetic work themselves, only a small number of them ask for a prosthodontist. Referral to another office is rare, usually the prosthodontist visits the GP's office for consultation and treatment. There is undoubtedly need of continuous certification/evaluation system of the prosthodontists and so is the need of making the masses aware of presence and role of such specialists in India. The Indian Prosthodontic Society is taking initiative to address this issue. © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Source

Ray S.K.,KPC Medical College
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND : Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases. Source

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