Busan, South Korea
Busan, South Korea

Kosin university is a private Christian university in Busan, South Korea. The name "Kosin" is derived from the name of a denominaton of presbyterian churches in Korea that had organized actions against the empire of Japan. This university was established in 1946 at the end of Japanese rule in Korea. Wikipedia.


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Lee J.H.,Myongji University | Bae I.K.,Kosin University | Hee Lee S.,Myongji University
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2012

Although there is no consensus of the precise definition of ESBL, three kinds of ESBL definitions have been proposed. First, the classical definition includes variants derived from TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1; K1 (KOXY) of Klebsiella oxytoca. Second, the broadened definition has stretched the classical definition of ESBL to include: (1) β-lactamases (CTX-M-ESBLs, GES-ESBLs, and VEB-ESBLs), with spectra similar to those of TEM and SHV variants (designated as TEM- and SHV-ESBLs, respectively) but derived from other sources; (2) TEM and SHV variants with borderline ESBL activity; e.g., TEM-12; and (3) various β-lactamases conferring wider resistance than their parent types but not meeting the definition for group 2be; e.g., OXA-types (OXA-ESBLs) and mutant AmpC-types (AmpC-ESBLs), with increased activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins and with resistance to clavulanic acid. Third, the all-inclusive definition includes: (1) ESBL A (named for class A ESBLs); (2) ESBL M (miscellaneous ESBLs), which has been subdivided into ESBL M-C (class C; plasmid-mediated AmpC) and ESBL M-D (class D); and (3) ESBL CARBA (ESBLs with hydrolytic activity against carbapenems), which has been subdivided into ESBL CARBA-A (class A carbapenemases), ESBL CARBA-B (class B carbapenemases), and ESBL CARBA-D (class D carbapenemases). The consensus view about the ESBL definition is that the classical ESBL definition must be expanded to class A non-TEM- and non-SHV-ESBLs (CTX-M-, GES-, VEB-ESBLs, etc.). However, these three definitions evoke rational debate on the question "Which would be included in the category of ESBLs among AmpC-ESBLs, OXA-ESBLs, and/or carbapenemases?" Therefore, there is a great need for consensus in the precise definition of ESBL. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kang S.-U.,Kosin University
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2013

Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lim C.S.,Kosin University
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi | Year: 2013

Crohn's disease is characterized by chronic transmural inflammation of the bowel and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, abscesses, fistula formation, and perforation. As neither medical nor surgical therapy provides a cure for Crohn's disease, the primary goals of therapy are to induce and maintain remission and prevent complications. As a biologic agent, infliximab, a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor, is indicated for refractory luminal and fistulizing Crohn's disease that does not respond to other medical therapies or surgery. Infliximab has proven to be very effective for inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease; however, infliximab treatment has several potential complications. Here, we report a case of free perforation following a therapeutic response after an initial dose of infliximab for Crohn's disease. This is the first case report describing a free perforation in a Crohn's disease patient after an initial dose of infliximab.


Moon W.,Kosin University
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2013

general considerations in bowel preparation for colonoscopy and specific considerations for various patients. A low-fiber diet instead of a regular diet on the day before colonoscopy is an independent predictor of adequate bowel preparation. Improved bowel cleansing does not result from the routine use of enemas or prokinetics in addition to oral bowel preparation. For morning colonoscopy, a split method of 4 L polyethylene glycol on the day before and the day of colonoscopy is recommended, while patients scheduled for afternoon colonoscopy typically receive a full method of 4 L polyethylene glycol on the day of the procedure. Valid alternatives are 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 2 L sodium picosulphate plus magnesium citrate. Although there are no statistically significant differences between polyethylene glycol and oral sodium phosphate for colon cleansing, polyethylene glycol-based bowel preparation is advisable in most situations because of safety concerns. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is an endoscopic alternative to surgical resection of mucosal and submucosal neoplastic lesions. Prior to the development of knives, EMR could be performed with accessories to elevate the lesion. After the development of various knives, en bloc resection was possible without other accessories. So, recently, simple snaring without suction or endoscopic submucosal dissection using knife in the epithelial lesions such as adenoma or early mucosal cancer has been performed. However, for easy and complete resection of subepithelial lesions such as carcinoid tumor, a few accessories are needed. Complete resection of rectal carcinoid tumors is difficult to achieve with conventional endoscopic resection techniques because these tumors often extend into the submucosa. The rate of positive resection margin for tumor is lower in the group of EMR using a cap (EMR-C) or EMR with a ligation device (EMR-L) thfor tumor is lower in the group of EMR using a cap (EMR-C) or EMR with a ligation device (EMR-L) than conventional EMR group. EMR-C and EMR-L (or endoscopic submucosal resection with a ligation device) may be a superior method to conventional EMR for removing small rectal carcinoid tumors. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


Park M.I.,Kosin University
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2013

Foregut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include those arising in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and duodenum and seem to have a broad range of clinical behavior from benign to metastatic. Several factors including the advent of screening endoscopy may be related to increased incidence of gastrointestinal NETs; thus, many foregut NETs are diagnosed at an early stage. Early foregut NETs, such as those of the stomach and duodenum, can be managed with endoscopic treatment because of a low frequency of lymph node and distant metastases. However, controversy continues concerning the optimal management of early foregut NETs due to a lack of controlled prospective studies. Several issues such as indications, technical issues, and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for early foregut NETs are reviewed based on some published studies. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


To compare the short-term effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) with those of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection for diabetic macular edema (DME). The present retrospective, comparative case study included 58 eyes of 35 consecutive patients (IVTA group, 20 eyes; IVB group, 38 eyes) with DME. IVTA (4 mg) or IVB (1.25 mg) injection was performed under local anesthesia. The effects of injection for DME were evaluated using best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) by optical coherence tomography and intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometer. Patients underwent eye examinations, including BCVA, CMT, and IOP at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) ± SD at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection was 0.67 ± 0.40, 0.56 ± 0.35 (p = 0.033), 0.55 ± 0.33 (p = 0.041), and 0.43 ± 0.31 (p = 0.001) in the IVTA group and 0.51 ± 0.31, 0.42 ± 0.26 (p = 0.003), 0.43 ± 0.32 (p = 0.001), and 0.43 ± 0.27 (p = 0.015) in the IVB group, respectively. CMT (μm) ± SD at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection was 400.4 ± 94.9, 332.8 ± 47.4 (p = 0.002), 287.5 ± 49.1 (p = 0.007), and 282.5 ± 49.6 (p = 0.043) in the IVTA group and 372.6 ± 99.5, 323.2 ± 72.4 (p = 0.077), 360.9 ± 50.3 (p = 0.668), 368.2 ± 88.6 (p = 0.830) in the IVB group, respectively. The effects of IVTA for BCVA were more favorable than were those of IVB and were consistent throughout the eight weeks after injection. IVTA significantly reduced CMT during the eight weeks after injection, while IVB did not.


Yu S.-B.,Kosin University
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology | Year: 2012

Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is the newest agent introduced for sedation in intensive care unit (ICU). The sedation strategy for critically ill patients has stressed light sedation with daily awakening and assessment for neurologic, cognitive, and respiratory functions, since Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) guidelines were presented in 2002. The traditional GABAergic agents, including benzodiazepines and propofol, have some limitations for safe sedatives in this setting, due to an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile and to detrimental adverse effects (such as lorazepam associated propylene glycol intoxication and propofol infusion syndrome). DEX produces it's sedative, analgesic and cardiovascular effects through α2 receptors on the locus ceruleus (LC). Activities of LC, the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are depressed and activity of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is increased during DEX sedation, which is similar in features to normal non-REM (NREM) sleep. At the same time, perifornical orexinergic activity is maintained, which might be associated with attention. This mechanism of action produces a normal sleep-like, cooperative sedation. The characteristic feature of sedation, together with a concomitant opioid sparing effect, may decrease the length of time spent on a ventilator, length of stay in ICU, and prevalence and duration of delirium, as the evidence shown from several comparative studies. In addition, DEX has an excellent safety profile. In conclusion, DEX is considered as a promising agent optimized for sedation in ICU. © the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2012.


Park M.I.,Kosin University
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2011

Nutrient drink test is one of the drink test techniques to assess gastric accommodation and to quantify meal-induced symptoms. It uses nutrient-containing solution instead of water and has been proposed as a surrogate method for estimating gastric volumes and validated for assessing satiation, sensation of bothersome symptoms after meal ingestion. Various nutrient-containing solution and drinking rates have been used and there were no widely accepted reference values for nutrient drink test until now. However, tests results are usually reported as the maximum tolerated volume, individual and cumulative symptom scores. The accommodation response, gastric sensation and gastric emptying may influence the maximum tolerated volume of nutrient drink. Although drink test is a useful tool for assessing gastric accommodation and sensation, it remains unclear exactly what physiologic processes are assessed by nutrient drink tests. © 2011 The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.


There is some controversy regarding whether or not hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtype 1b is more influential than non-1b subtypes on the progression of chronic hepatitis (CH) C to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively analyzed 823 patients with chronic HCV infection, including 443 CH patients, 264 LC patients, and 116 HCC patients, who were HCV RNA positive and HBsAg negative. These patients had not received any prior treatment with either interferon alone or a combination of interferon and ribavirin. HCV subtypes 1b (51.6%) and 2a/2c (39.5%) were the two most common genotypes. The proportions of genotypes 2 (2a/2c, 2b, and 2) and 3 were 45.8% and 1.1%, respectively. One case of genotype 4 was found. HCV subtype 1b (47.3%) was less common than the non-1b subtypes (52.7%) in non-LC patients, but its proportion (56.9%) was higher than that of non-1b subtypes (43.1%) in LC patients (P=0.006). The proportions of patients with HCV subtype 1b did not differ significantly between the LC (55.3%) and HCC (60.3%) groups. Older age, male gender, and the relative progression of liver damage (non-LC vs. compensated LC vs. decompensated LC) were significant risk factors for HCC, with odds ratios of 1.081 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.056-1.106), 5.749 (95% CI, 3.329-9.930), and 2.895 (95% CI, 2.183-3.840), respectively. HCV subtype 1b was not a significant risk factor for HCC (odds ratio, 1.423; 95% CI, 0.895-2.262). HCV subtypes 1b and 2a/2c were the two most common HCV genotypes. HCV subtype 1b seemed to be more influential than non-1b subtypes on the progression of CH to LC, but not on the development of HCC from LC.

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