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Busan, South Korea

Kosin university is a private Christian university in Busan, South Korea. The name "Kosin" is derived from the name of a denominaton of presbyterian churches in Korea that had organized actions against the empire of Japan. This university was established in 1946 at the end of Japanese rule in Korea. Wikipedia.

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is an endoscopic alternative to surgical resection of mucosal and submucosal neoplastic lesions. Prior to the development of knives, EMR could be performed with accessories to elevate the lesion. After the development of various knives, en bloc resection was possible without other accessories. So, recently, simple snaring without suction or endoscopic submucosal dissection using knife in the epithelial lesions such as adenoma or early mucosal cancer has been performed. However, for easy and complete resection of subepithelial lesions such as carcinoid tumor, a few accessories are needed. Complete resection of rectal carcinoid tumors is difficult to achieve with conventional endoscopic resection techniques because these tumors often extend into the submucosa. The rate of positive resection margin for tumor is lower in the group of EMR using a cap (EMR-C) or EMR with a ligation device (EMR-L) thfor tumor is lower in the group of EMR using a cap (EMR-C) or EMR with a ligation device (EMR-L) than conventional EMR group. EMR-C and EMR-L (or endoscopic submucosal resection with a ligation device) may be a superior method to conventional EMR for removing small rectal carcinoid tumors. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Park M.I.,Kosin University
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2013

Foregut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include those arising in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and duodenum and seem to have a broad range of clinical behavior from benign to metastatic. Several factors including the advent of screening endoscopy may be related to increased incidence of gastrointestinal NETs; thus, many foregut NETs are diagnosed at an early stage. Early foregut NETs, such as those of the stomach and duodenum, can be managed with endoscopic treatment because of a low frequency of lymph node and distant metastases. However, controversy continues concerning the optimal management of early foregut NETs due to a lack of controlled prospective studies. Several issues such as indications, technical issues, and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for early foregut NETs are reviewed based on some published studies. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Moon W.,Kosin University
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2013

general considerations in bowel preparation for colonoscopy and specific considerations for various patients. A low-fiber diet instead of a regular diet on the day before colonoscopy is an independent predictor of adequate bowel preparation. Improved bowel cleansing does not result from the routine use of enemas or prokinetics in addition to oral bowel preparation. For morning colonoscopy, a split method of 4 L polyethylene glycol on the day before and the day of colonoscopy is recommended, while patients scheduled for afternoon colonoscopy typically receive a full method of 4 L polyethylene glycol on the day of the procedure. Valid alternatives are 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 2 L sodium picosulphate plus magnesium citrate. Although there are no statistically significant differences between polyethylene glycol and oral sodium phosphate for colon cleansing, polyethylene glycol-based bowel preparation is advisable in most situations because of safety concerns. © 2013 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Lee J.H.,Myongji University | Bae I.K.,Kosin University | Hee Lee S.,Myongji University
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2012

Although there is no consensus of the precise definition of ESBL, three kinds of ESBL definitions have been proposed. First, the classical definition includes variants derived from TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1; K1 (KOXY) of Klebsiella oxytoca. Second, the broadened definition has stretched the classical definition of ESBL to include: (1) β-lactamases (CTX-M-ESBLs, GES-ESBLs, and VEB-ESBLs), with spectra similar to those of TEM and SHV variants (designated as TEM- and SHV-ESBLs, respectively) but derived from other sources; (2) TEM and SHV variants with borderline ESBL activity; e.g., TEM-12; and (3) various β-lactamases conferring wider resistance than their parent types but not meeting the definition for group 2be; e.g., OXA-types (OXA-ESBLs) and mutant AmpC-types (AmpC-ESBLs), with increased activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins and with resistance to clavulanic acid. Third, the all-inclusive definition includes: (1) ESBL A (named for class A ESBLs); (2) ESBL M (miscellaneous ESBLs), which has been subdivided into ESBL M-C (class C; plasmid-mediated AmpC) and ESBL M-D (class D); and (3) ESBL CARBA (ESBLs with hydrolytic activity against carbapenems), which has been subdivided into ESBL CARBA-A (class A carbapenemases), ESBL CARBA-B (class B carbapenemases), and ESBL CARBA-D (class D carbapenemases). The consensus view about the ESBL definition is that the classical ESBL definition must be expanded to class A non-TEM- and non-SHV-ESBLs (CTX-M-, GES-, VEB-ESBLs, etc.). However, these three definitions evoke rational debate on the question "Which would be included in the category of ESBLs among AmpC-ESBLs, OXA-ESBLs, and/or carbapenemases?" Therefore, there is a great need for consensus in the precise definition of ESBL. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

To compare the short-term effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) with those of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection for diabetic macular edema (DME). The present retrospective, comparative case study included 58 eyes of 35 consecutive patients (IVTA group, 20 eyes; IVB group, 38 eyes) with DME. IVTA (4 mg) or IVB (1.25 mg) injection was performed under local anesthesia. The effects of injection for DME were evaluated using best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) by optical coherence tomography and intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometer. Patients underwent eye examinations, including BCVA, CMT, and IOP at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) ± SD at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection was 0.67 ± 0.40, 0.56 ± 0.35 (p = 0.033), 0.55 ± 0.33 (p = 0.041), and 0.43 ± 0.31 (p = 0.001) in the IVTA group and 0.51 ± 0.31, 0.42 ± 0.26 (p = 0.003), 0.43 ± 0.32 (p = 0.001), and 0.43 ± 0.27 (p = 0.015) in the IVB group, respectively. CMT (μm) ± SD at pre-injection, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection was 400.4 ± 94.9, 332.8 ± 47.4 (p = 0.002), 287.5 ± 49.1 (p = 0.007), and 282.5 ± 49.6 (p = 0.043) in the IVTA group and 372.6 ± 99.5, 323.2 ± 72.4 (p = 0.077), 360.9 ± 50.3 (p = 0.668), 368.2 ± 88.6 (p = 0.830) in the IVB group, respectively. The effects of IVTA for BCVA were more favorable than were those of IVB and were consistent throughout the eight weeks after injection. IVTA significantly reduced CMT during the eight weeks after injection, while IVB did not.

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