Watanabe K.,Koshien University
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
Prostaglandin (PG) F 2α is widely distributed in various organs and exhibits various biological functions, such as luteolysis, parturition, aqueous humor homeostasis, vasoconstriction, rennin secretion, pulmonary fibrosis and so on. The first enzyme reported to synthesize PGF 2 was referred to as PGF synthase belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family, and later PGF 2α synthases were isolated from protozoans and designated as members of the AKR5A family. In 2003, AKR1B5, which is highly expressed in bovine endometrium, was reported to have PGF 2α synthase activity, and recently, the paper entitled 'Prostaglandin F 2α synthase activities of AKR 1B1, 1B3 and 1B7' was reported by Kabututu et al. (J. Biochem.145, 161-168, 2009). Clones that had already been registered in a database as aldose reductases (AKR1B1, 1B3, and 1B7) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and these enzymes were found to have PGF 2α synthase activity. Moreover, in the above-cited article, the effects of inhibitors specific for aldose reductase on the PGF 2α synthase activity of AKR1B were discussed. Here, I present an overview of various PGF/PGF 2α synthases including those of AKR1B subfamily that have been reported until now. © 2011 The Authors.
Utsumi M.,Osaka University |
Makimoto K.,Osaka University |
Quroshi N.,Osaka University |
Ashida N.,Koshien University
Age and Ageing | Year: 2010
Background: Infectious outbreaks in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) tend to have a significant impact on infection rates and mortality rates of the residents. 299 Objectives: this review aimed to update the information on pathogens identified in such outbreaks and to try to explore indicators that reflect the impact of outbreaks among residents and health care workers (HCWs). Methods: MEDLINE (1966-2008) was used to identify outbreaks using the following thesaurus terms: 'Cross-Infection', 'Disease Outbreaks', 'Urinary-Tract Infections' and 'Blood-Borne Pathogens'. Elderly care facilities were identified with the following thesaurus terms: 'Long-Term Care', 'Assisted-Living Facilities', 'Homes for the Aged' and 'Nursing Homes'. Age category was limited using 'Aged'. Results: thirty-seven pathogens were associated with 206 outbreaks. The largest number of reported outbreaks by a single pathogen involved the influenza virus, followed by noroviruses. Among residents, the highest median attack rate for respiratory infection outbreaks was caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae (46%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (40%). In gastrointestinal tract infection outbreaks, high median attack rates were caused by Clostridium perfringens (48%) and noroviruses (45%). Outbreaks with high median case fatality rates were caused by Group A Streptococci (50%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (44%). High median attack rates for HCWs were caused by C. pneumoniae (41%), noroviruses (42%) and scabies (36%). Conclusion: a variety of infectious agents were identified as the cause of outbreaks in the elderly and HCWs in LTCFs. Attack rates and case fatality rates are useful indicators for setting priorities for education and prevention of the outbreaks. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Nasu Y.,Koshien University
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2011
Although many studies have analyzed breathing sounds in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, the recording of snoring sounds at home is hampered by the various background noises of daily life. Recordings also frequently include talking during sleep, which may infringe the privacy of patients. A recording system used a bone conduction microphone to record snoring sounds. This microphone reduced background noise. A simple system transmitted recorded breathing sound data for screening at a hospital as envelope data instead of complete sound recordings, thereby decreasing data volume and protecting privacy. In periods in which blood oxygen levels (SpO 2) were drastically decreased, the probability of apnea as deduced from the envelope curve of breathing sounds was consistent with SpO 2 values. This method provides a basis for telemonitoring of sleep apnea syndrome.
Shiozaki M.,Koshien University |
Shiozaki M.,Osaka University |
Hayakawa N.,Osaka University |
Shibata M.,Niigata University |
And 3 more authors.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2011
Resveratrol has been extensively investigated because of its beneWcial eVects in delaying age-related diseases, thus extending the lifespan, possibly by mimicking calorie restriction. For this study, cell biological techniques were used to examine how resveratrol inXuenced hepatocytes in a senescence-accelerated mouse P10 (SAMP10), treated from 35 to 55 weeks of age, with special emphasis on the relationship between mitochondria and lipid droplets. Survival ratio, body weight and food intake of SAMP10 did not diVer signiWcantly between the control and resveratrol-treated groups. Compared with the control, the treated livers were altered signiWcantly, as follows. Lipid droplets were reduced and mitochondria were increased in number in hepatocytes. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and the expression of both the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD2) were increased. Mitochondria, expressing more SOD2, were more tightly associated with lipid droplets, suggesting the enhancement of lipolysis through the activation of mitochondrial functions. Cathepsin D expression was less in hepatocytes but enhanced in KupVer cells, which were increased in number and size with more numerous lysosome-related proWles. Together, resveratrol may activate mitochondria resulting in consuming lipids, and may also activate KupVer cells by which a beneWcial milieu for hepatocytes may be created. Both might be related to improvement in the functioning of the liver, which is the organ that is central to metabolic regulation. © Springer-Verlag 2011.
Omura K.,Koshien University
Synthesis | Year: 2010
The oxidation of 2,4,6-trialkylphenols with lead(IV) oxide and 70% perchloric acid in water-acetone or in alcohols gives p-quinols or p-quinol ethers, respectively. Some nonmetallic oxidants serve the same purpose. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.
Nakajima K.,Koshien University |
Tsujiwaki S.,Koshien University |
Nakajima Y.,Okayama University
Anticancer Research | Year: 2014
Background/Aim: Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) has been intensively studied in bacteria, plankton, algae and salt-resistant plants to investigate its metabolism and fate in the atmosphere. However, its effects on diseased terrestrial animals have not yet been examined. We have found that DMSP exerts a great healing effect for a variety of inflammatory disorders in rodents. In the present study, effects of single and high concentration of DMSP on terrible Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing-mice with unavoidable-rapid death were examined. Results: We found that high concentration of DMSP completely suppresses acute EAC, which has never been eradicated, and accumulates large amounts of activated macrophages with no inflammation on various viscera in the peritoneal cavity of normal mice. Conclusion: These results show that DMSP is a new and potent anticancer compound with no side-effects, most likely playing a vital role for cancer immune therapy. © 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.
Nakajima K.,Koshien University |
Nakajima Y.,Okayama University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011
The effects of intraperitoneal administration of dimethylsulfonioacetate (DMSA), dimethlsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and methylmethionine (MeMet) solutions (10 mM each) on the body weights and the hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice were examined for up to 10d. Body weights significantly increased in the EAC-bearing mice treated with and without MeMet in contrast to those with DMSA and DMSP. This increase was attributed to the increased amounts of ascitic fluid. EAC-bearing mice with and without MeMet both showed abnormal values of hematological parameters, while those with DMSA and DMSP exhibited almost normal levels on the 10th day.
Satoh H.,Kitasato University |
Watanabe K.,Koshien University |
Kawaminami M.,Kitasato University |
Kurusu S.,Kitasato University
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators | Year: 2013
A comprehensive immunohistochemistry with the isoform-distinguishable antibodies against prostaglandin (PG) F2α and PGE2 biosynthetic enzymes was undertaken to identify the cellular types and enzyme isoforms in rat ovary and uterus around parturition. In general ovarian and uterine cells showed positive immunoreactions for phospholipase A2 groups 4A and 6A, but not group 2A, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 rather than COX-2. Their immunoreactions for PGF2α synthase and PGE 2 synthase were cell type-dependently variable. The putative PGF 2α and PGE2 producing cell types included, as expected, ovarian luteal cells, uterine endometrial epithelium and myometrium, and cervical connective tissue and, unexpectedly, ovarian stromal cells and basal lamina of cervical endometrium. Obtained data indicate the generation of PGF2α and PGE2 by multiple sites, which are entirely the same as established sites of actions, in parturition processes and tissue-dependent differential usage of PG biosynthetic pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsuo A.,Koshien University |
Sato K.,Kyoto Prefectural University |
Park E.Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University |
Nakamura Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University |
Ohtsuki K.,Kyoto Prefectural University
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012
Direct addition of a food additive-grade Aspergillus niger phytase preparation to 30% brown rice flour-added bread ingredients reduced the bread myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP 6) content. The phytase preparation had protease and amylase activities. Addition of the crude phytase preparation induced bread crust collapse. Protease-free high- and low-amylase phytase fractions were prepared using preparative ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Addition of the protease-free low-amylase phytase fraction did not significantly affect loaf volume and did not collapse the crust. Addition of the protease-free high-amylase phytase fraction significantly increased loaf volume approximately 1.5× in the presence of amylase at 193-1029U. However, addition of 1029 and 2058U of amylase induced partial and whole bread crust collapse, respectively. Therefore, removal of protease and control of amylase activities in the phytase preparation are crucial in the preparation of brown rice flour-added bread with a low myo-inositol phosphate (IP 6) and good swelling property. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Omura K.,Koshien University
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013
Positive halogen donors such as N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) induce solvolysis of dienones 1, as model 4-halogenocyclohexa-2,5-dienones, in different hydroxylic solvents (ROH), yielding the 4-RO-cyclohexa-2,5-dienones (2). The rate of the solvolysis with NIS is highly dependent on the structure of ROH. The problem of such dependency is overcome by running the reaction in ROH diluted with MeCN, a polar aprotic solvent, in place of pure ROH; the rate of the reaction in the ROH-MeCN solvent mixture is almost independent of the structure (or the polarity) of ROH, and the reaction is completed faster or markedly faster than in neat ROH. The results suggest that the solvolysis rate is controlled by the polarity of the solvent system, although the hydrogen-bond acceptability of MeCN for dilution also accelerates the reaction. A mechanism for the solvolysis is proposed, involving electrophilic attack of a positive halogen donor at the halogen atom of 1, generating the 4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dienyl cation intermediates (8) via the rate-limiting polar transition states. © CSIRO 2013.