Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Singh R.B.,Halberg Hospital and Research Institute | Takahashi T.,Fukuoka Womens University | Nakaoka T.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Otsuka K.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Open Nutraceuticals Journal | Year: 2013

The food and nutrient intake among Paleolithic Homo sapiens, hunter-gatherers and among Asian and Homo economicus Western populations shows marked variations. Economic development and affluence may be associated with a decrease in the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants and amino acids and significant increase in the intakes of carbohydrates, (mainly refined), fat (saturated, trans fat and linoleic acid) and salt compared to the Paleolithic period. The protein or amino acid intake was 2.5 fold greater (33 vs. 13%) in the Paleolithic diet Homo sapiens compared to modern Western diet consumed by Homo economicus populations. Approximately 10,000 years ago, prior to the Agricultural Revolution, our diet was based on an enormous variety of wild plants. However, today about 17% of plant species provide 90% of the world's food supply which is mainly contributed by grains produced by fertilizer based on rapidly grown crops which may result in a decrease in nutrient density and increase in energy. Wheat, corn and rice account for three fourths of the world's grain production on which humans are dependent for their food supply. Grains are high in omega-6 fatty acids and carbohydrates and low in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants compared to leafy green vegetables. It has been estimated that diet of Homo sapiens was characterized by higher intakes by essential and nonessential amino acids, calcium, potassium, magnesium, flavonoids and w-3 fatty acids whereas modern Western diet of Homo economicus has excess of energy-rich refined carbohydrates, w-6, trans fat and saturated fat and low in protective nutrients. The consumption of such diets in wealthy countries in conjunction with sedentary behavior is associated with increased prevalence of morbidity and mortality due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). © Singh et al. Source


Omidvar S.,Babol University of Medical Sciences | Pati S.,Public Health Foundation of India | Singh R.B.,The Tsim Tsoum Institute | Takahashi T.,Fukuoka Womens University | And 13 more authors.
World Heart Journal | Year: 2013

Background. Antioxidant flavonoid deficiency may be risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Further studies indicate that increased consumption of cocoa products; cocoa, and chocolates, etc. may be associated with decreased risk of NCDs; cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, insulin resistance, memory dysfunction and cancers. In the present review, on supporting evidence for such claims. Methods. Internet search and discussion with experts. Parts of meta-analysis have been briefly and partly reproduced in the Results Section of the Abstract to maintain impact and impartiality throughout the paper. Results. Cocoa flavonol appears to have potential beneficial effects against the risk of, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, blood lipids, stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), cancer, cognitive function and dementia due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and activation of nitric oxide effects. In a meta-analysis, epidemiological studies, comprising of 114009 participants, The highest levels of chocolate consumption, were associated with a 37% reduction in CVD (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Another meta-analysis showed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control but it was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01). BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups. Clinical studies among subjects showed that cocoa intake can improve endothelial function by activation of nitric oxide. In a double-blind, parallel arm study in 90 elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment, randomized to consume once daily for 8 weeks a drink containing ≈990 mg (high flavanols), ≈520 mg (intermediate flavanols), or ≈45 mg (low flavanols) of cocoa flavanols per day. The time required to complete Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B was significantly (P<0.05) lower in subjects assigned to high flavanols (38.10±10.94 and 104.10±28.73 seconds, respectively) and intermediate flavanols (40.20±11.35 and 115.97±28.35 seconds, respectively) in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (52.60±17.97 and 139.23±43.02 seconds, respectively). Similarly, verbal fluency test score was significantly (P<0.05) better in subjects assigned to high flavanols in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (27.50±6.75 versus 22.30±8.09 words per 60 seconds). Insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation also decreased among subjects in the high-flavanol and intermediate-flavanol groups. Conclusions. Dietary supplementation with cocoa (300-1000mg/day) in the form of dark chocolates can protect against NCDs; hypertension, stroke, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, memory dysfunction and cancer. Further research is necessary to prove this finding. © Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Source


Singh R.B.,The Tsim Tsoum Institute | Takahashi T.,Fukuoka Womens University | Tokunaga M.,Fukuoka Womens University | Wilczynska A.,The Tsim Tsoum Institute | And 9 more authors.
Open Nutraceuticals Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major neurotrophin which may have promise to be a nutraceutical of this decade. It has a documented role in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuronal survival. BDNF can have beneficial effects on several cardio-metabolic and neuro-psychiatric disorders, indicating that it is important in brain-body interactions. Diet and lifestyle factors may also have an influence on BDNF levels. In this review, we examine the beneficial role of BDNF on risk factors of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and anxiety disorders. Methods: Internet search and discussion with peer colleagues. Results: Majority of the BDNF (70-80%) is derived from dendrite of neurons but it is also present in other body tissues. BDNF controls the food intake and appetite as well as lipid and glucose metabolism. Sedentary behavior and tobacco intake may be associated with BDNF deficiency. Lower serum concentration of BDNF and higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations were associated with increased risk of incident stroke/TIA. BDNF may serve as an intermediate biomarker for subclinical vascular disease and may also have biological potential to serve as a therapeutic target for primary and secondary prevention of vascular diseases, as well as clinical and subclinical vascular brain disease. BDNF deficiency has been observed in association with anxiety, depression, insomnia, dementia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases. The phenotypes associated with insulin resistance are at increased risk for developing cognitive decline and neuro-degeneration resulting in vascular dementia, and depression as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are risk factors for CVDs. BDNF may be administered as nutraceutical due to its protective influence on BDNF concentrations, insulin receptors and hypothalamic dysfunction leading to beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk and neuropsychological dysfunction. It is proposed that omega-3 fatty acids and moderate physical activity may enhance BDNF release. Conclusions: It is possible that circulating BDNF deficiency is a risk factor for obesity, CVDs and diabetes as well as risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. BDNF administration may modify the risk of clinical and subclinical stroke, depression, and dementia as well as of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © Singh et al. Source


De Meester F.,Halberg Hospital and Research Institute | De Meester F.,The Tsim Tsoum Institute | Takahashi T.,Fukuoka Womens University | Singh R.B.,Tokai University | And 11 more authors.
World Heart Journal | Year: 2013

The food and nutrient intake of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers (Homo erectus) and of Western populations (Homo economicus) show marked variations. With increase in wealth and affluence there is a decrease in the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants and amino acids and a significant increase in the intake of refined carbohydrates, fats (saturated & trans fats, omega-6 fatty acids) and salt in comparison with those of the Paleolithic period. The protein or amino acid intake was 2.5 fold greater (33 vs. 13%) in the Paleolithic diet of Homo erectus compared to that of the modern Western diet. Prior to the Agricultural Revolution, man's diet was based on an enormous variety of wild plants, eggs, fish and seeds. In comparison, today about 17% of plant species provide 90% of the world's food supply which is mainly contributed by grains produced from fertilizer-based rapidly grown crops potentially lower in nutrient density and higher in energy. Grains are high in omega-6 fatty acids and carbohydrates and low in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants compared to leafy green vegetables. The appropriate diet for Homo sapiens is characterized by high levels of protective essential nutrients; amino acids, minerals, vitamins, flavonoids, omega-6/3 fatty acids. Whereas the average diet of Homo erectus did comply with this evolutionary pattern, the modern Western dietary pattern of Homo economicus has excess of energy-rich refined carbohydrates, omega-6, trans and saturated fats. The consumption of such foods in wealthy countries in conjunction with sedentary behavior are associated with increased risk of deaths due to cardiovascular (CVDs) and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). © Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Source

Discover hidden collaborations