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Czerkinsky C.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Holmgren J.,Gothenburg University
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2012

The mucosal immune system exhibits a high degree of anatomic compartmentalization related to the migratory patterns of lymphocytes activated at different mucosal sites. The selective localization of mucosal lymphocytes to specific tissues is governed by cellular "homing" and chemokine receptors in conjunction with tissue-specific addressins and epithelial cell-derived chemokines that are differentially expressed in "effector" tissues. The compartmentalization of mucosal immune responses imposes constraints on the selection of vaccine administration route. Traditional routes of mucosal immunization include oral and nasal routes. Other routes for inducing mucosal immunity include the rectal, vaginal, sublingual, and transcutaneous routes. Sublingual administration is a new approach that results in induction of mucosal and systemic T cell and antibody responses with an exceptionally broad dissemination to different mucosae, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and the genital mucosa. Here, we discuss how sublingual and different routes of immunization can be used to generate immune responses in the desired mucosal tissue(s). © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kweon M.-N.,Korean International Vaccine Institute
Cytokine | Year: 2011

Needle-free vaccine delivery has become a global priority, both to eliminate the risk of improper and unsafe needle use and to simplify vaccination procedures. In pursuit of greater ease of vaccination, a number of needle-free delivery routes have been explored, with mucosal routes being perhaps the most prominent. Since the vaccine administration route significantly affects immune responses, numerous researchers are attempting to develop alternative vaccine delivery methods including a mucosal route. My group's recent studies demonstrate the potential of the sublingual (s.l.) route for delivering vaccines capable of inducing mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. Sublingual administration conferred effective protection against a lethal challenge with influenza virus (H1N1) or genital papillomavirus. Moreover, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21-regulated dendritic cells are responsible for activation of T and B cells following s.l. administration. This review highlights current knowledge about the safety and effectiveness of s.l. vaccination and describes how s.l. vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal immunity. © 2010. Source

Halstead S.B.,Korean International Vaccine Institute
Paediatrics and International Child Health | Year: 2012

Research into the pathogenesis of dengue fever has exploded over the last half-century, with issues that were considered simple becoming more complex as additional data are found. This has led to the development of a number of controversies that are being studied across the globe and debated in the literature. In this paper, the following six controversies are analysed and, where possible, resolved: the 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not useful; DHF is not significantly associated with secondary dengue infection; DHF results from infection with a 'virulent' dengue virus; DHF is owing to abnormal T-cell responses; DHF results from auto-immune responses; and DHF results from direct infection of endothelial cells. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012. Source

Mahoney R.T.,Korean International Vaccine Institute
Health Research Policy and Systems | Year: 2011

There is a continuing need for new health technologies to address the disease burdens of developing countries. In the last decade Product Development Partnerships (PDP) have emerged that are making important contributions to the development of these technologies. PDPs are a form of public private partnerships that focus on health technology development. PDPs reflect the current phase in the history of health technology development: the Era of Partnerships, in which the public and private sectors have found productive ways to collaborate. Successful innovation depends on addressing six determinants of innovation. We examine four case studies of PDPs and show how they have addressed the six determinants to achieve success. © 2011 Mahoney; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Clemens J.,Korean International Vaccine Institute
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. Licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. The reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and certainly include financial and political constraints. Also important is the need for more cogent evidence on the performance of enteric vaccines in developing country populations. A partial inventory of research questions would include: (i) does the vaccine perform well in the most relevant settings? (ii) does the vaccine perform well in all epidemiologically relevant age groups? (iii) is there adequate evidence of vaccine safety once the vaccines have been deployed in developing countries? (iv) how effective is the vaccine when given in conjunction with non-vaccine cointerventions? (v) what is the level of vaccine protection against all relevant outcomes? and (vi) what is the expected population level of vaccine protection, including both direct and herd vaccine protective effects? Provision of evidence addressing these questions will help expand the use of enteric vaccines in developing countries. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

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