Korean Industrial Health Association

Seoul, South Korea

Korean Industrial Health Association

Seoul, South Korea
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Seo J.,Kyungpook National University | Lee B.-K.,Korean Industrial Health Association | Jin S.-U.,Kyungpook National University | Jang K.E.,Kyungpook National University | And 8 more authors.
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2015

Introduction: It is well known that lead exposure induces neurotoxic effects, which can result in dysfunction in a variety of cognitive capacities including executive function. However, few studies have used fMRI to examine the direct neural correlates of executive function in participants with past lead exposure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate possible alterations in the neural correlates of executive function in the previously lead-exposed brain. Methods: Forty-three lead-exposed and 41 healthy participants were enrolled. During the fMRI scans, participants performed two modified versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) differing in cognitive demand, and a task that established a high-level baseline condition (HLB). Results: The neural activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was greater in healthy controls than in participants with lead exposure when contrasting the difficult version of the WCST with the HLB. Moreover, cortical activation was found to be inversely associated with blood lead concentration after controlling for covariates. Discussion: These data suggest that lead exposure can induce functional abnormalities in distributed cortical networks related to executive function, and that lead-induced neurotoxicity may be persistent rather than transient. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Sim C.-S.,University of Ulsan | Kim Y.,University of Ulsan | Lee H.,University of Ulsan | Park C.-Y.,Catholic University of Korea | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-11 on the distribution of blood lead levels, and examine their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adolescent Korean population. Methods: This study was based on data obtained from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0. μg/L), low normal (serum ferritin 15.0-30.0. μg/L for girls and 15.0-50.0 for boys), and normal (serum ferritin ≥30.0. μg/L for girls and ≥50.0 for boys), and its association with blood lead levels was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of blood lead in the low serum ferritin group was significantly higher than that in the normal group among boys but not girls. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood lead was inversely correlated with serum ferritin levels in boys and pre-menarche girls only. Discussion: The present study shows that iron deficiency increases blood lead levels in a representative sample of the male and pre-menarche female adolescent population, as evaluated in KNHANES. The confounding effect of estrogen on blood lead levels should be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Kim S.H.,University of Ulsan | Kim Y.,University of Ulsan | Kim N.-S.,Soonchunhyang University | Lee B.-K.,Korean Industrial Health Association
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Gender differences in blood cadmium concentrations and the effect of iron deficiency on blood cadmium levels were analyzed in a representative sample of Koreans assessed in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. Methods: A rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized as low (<15.0. μg/L), low normal (15.0-<30.0. μg/L for females and 15.0-<50.0. μg/L for males), and normal (≥30.0. μg/L for females and ≥50.0. μg/L for males), and its association with blood cadmium levels was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of the blood cadmium level was significantly higher in females than in males, and significantly higher in older individuals for both genders. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis with interaction terms showed that blood cadmium was correlated with serum ferritin levels only in pre-menopausal females. Discussion: Iron deficiency is associated with blood cadmium levels in a representative sample of pre-menopausal females, as evaluated in KNHANES. Gender differences in blood cadmium concentration may not be due solely to an iron deficiency-associated increase in blood cadmium. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Korean Industrial Health Association, Dong - A University, Chonnam National University, Soonchunhyang University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2016

Arsenic is a carcinogenic heavy metal that has a species-dependent health effects and abandoned metal mines are a source of significant arsenic exposure. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze urinary arsenic species and their concentration in residents living near abandoned metal mines and to monitor the environmental health effects of abandoned metal mines in Korea.This study was performed in 2014 to assess urinary arsenic excretion patterns of residents living near abandoned metal mines in South Korea. Demographic data such as gender, age, mine working history, period of residency, dietary patterns, smoking and alcohol use, and type of potable water consumed were obtaining using a questionnaire. Informed consent was also obtained from all study subjects (The geometric mean of urinary arsenic (sum of dimethylarsinic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, AsWe propose that the observed elevation in urinary arsenic concentration in residents living near abandoned metal mines may be due to environmental contamination from the abandoned metal mine.Not Applicable (We do not have health care intervention on human participants).


PubMed | Environmental Health Research Division, Dong - A University, Korea University, Chonnam National University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the association between urinary cadmium (U-cd) concentration and diabetes in middle-aged Korean residents of abandoned mines using the first Health Effect Surveillance for Residents in Abandoned Metal mines (HESRAM).This study was cross-sectional study conducted on 719 residents between 40-70 years in 38 abandoned metal mines in Korea. Data was collected by HESRAM from 2008 to 2011. The correlation coefficient of U-cd and fasting blood glucose, odds ratio in urinary cadmium tertiles and diabetes prevalence was analyzed according to the sex category.The correlation coefficient U-cd concentration and fasting blood glucose was 0.182 in male. Logistic regression analysis in male revealed a third tertile odds ratio of U-cd (2g/g creatinine


PubMed | Korean Industrial Health Association, Korea University, University of Ulsan, Keimyung University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

It is well known that lead exposure induces neurotoxic effects, which can result in a variety of neurocognitive dysfunction. Especially, occupational lead exposures in adults are associated with decreases in cognitive performance including working memory. Despite recent advances in human neuroimaging techniques, the neural correlates of lead-exposed cognitive impairment remain unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the neural activations in relation to working memory function between the lead-exposed subjects and healthy controls.Thirty-one lead-exposed subjects and 34 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. We performed fMRI using the 1-back and 2-back memory tasks differing in cognitive demand. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. We found that the lead-exposed subjects showed poorer working memory performance during high memory loading task than the healthy subjects. In addition, between-group analyses revealed that the lead-exposed subjects showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, pre supplementary motor areas, and inferior parietal cortex.Our findings suggest that functional abnormalities in the frontoparietal working memory network might contribute to impairments in maintenance and manipulation of working memory in the lead-exposed subjects.


PubMed | Soonchunhyang University, Korean Industrial Health Association, University of Ulsan and Catholic University of Korea
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2014

We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-11 on the distribution of blood lead levels, and examine their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adolescent Korean population.This study was based on data obtained from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0g/L), low normal (serum ferritin 15.0-30.0g/L for girls and 15.0-50.0 for boys), and normal (serum ferritin 30.0g/L for girls and 50.0 for boys), and its association with blood lead levels was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors.The geometric mean (GM) of blood lead in the low serum ferritin group was significantly higher than that in the normal group among boys but not girls. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood lead was inversely correlated with serum ferritin levels in boys and pre-menarche girls only.The present study shows that iron deficiency increases blood lead levels in a representative sample of the male and pre-menarche female adolescent population, as evaluated in KNHANES. The confounding effect of estrogen on blood lead levels should be considered.


PubMed | Korean Industrial Health Association and University of Ulsan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Safety and health at work | Year: 2014

The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.


Lee B.-K.,Korean Industrial Health Association | Kim Y.,University of Ulsan
Safety and Health at Work | Year: 2014

The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals. © 2014, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


Min H.J.,Seoul National Hospital | Jon D.-I.,Hallym University | Jung M.H.,Hallym University | Hong N.,Hallym University | And 5 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: This study explored the clinical characteristics and risk factors of suicidal ideation in a sample of first graders from South Korea. Children's depression and aggression and maternal depression were examined as possible risk factors. Methods: This study is a school-based, cross-sectional study of 5 elementary schools in Gunpo City, South Korea. Participants were 707 first graders (mean age, 6.54 years) and their mothers. We assessed children's depressive and aggressive symptoms using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) and maternal depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Two items from BASC-2 and 1 item from BDI identified children's and maternal suicidal ideation. Results: Twenty-seven (3.8%) children evidenced suicidal ideation. Children with suicidal ideation had higher mean scores of depression domain (10.11 ± 5.34 vs 4.57 ± 3.44, P <.0001) and aggression domain (7.78 ± 3.84 vs 3.80 ± 2.85, P <.0001) on BASC-2 and maternal depression (9.78 ± 6.45 vs 7.28 ± 5.38, P =.02) on BDI. In regression analysis, children's depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.32; P =.001) and aggression (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41; P =.002) contributed significantly to children's suicidal ideation, whereas maternal depression was not significantly related to children's suicidal ideation (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.06; P =.75). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that even first graders had a considerable prevalence of suicidal ideation and that depression and aggression were associated with suicidal ideation in young children. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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