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Gyeonggi, South Korea

Park S.,Hoseo University | Kim D.S.,Hoseo University | Kang S.,Hoseo University | Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes
Life Sciences

Aims: Diabetes increases the chances of stroke and the stroke itself is thought to induce hyperglycemia and diabetes. However, this latter contention remains uncorroborated. We investigated whether ischemic hippocampal neuronal cell death induces glucose dysregualtion by modulating insulin resistance, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass in Mongolian gerbils fed either a high fat or low fat diet. Main methods: Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 mins to render them ischemic, or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either an 11% fat diet (LFD) or a 40% fat diet (HFD) for 7, 14 or 28 days. Key findings: Artery occlusion resulted in a 70% or greater initial reduction in hippocampal CA1 neurons and only HFD decreased the percentage of CA1 neurons as the ischemic periods became longer. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results revealed that ischemia induced glucose intolerance, and longer ischemic periods and HFD exacerbated this glucose intolerance in ischemic gerbils. Insulin secretion during the OGTT was lower in ischemic gerbils than sham gerbils and the decrease was greatest in the 28 day-HFD among all the groups. Insulin resistance was elevated the most in 28 day-HFD ischemic gerbils. There was a progressive loss of pancreatic β-cell mass as the post-ischemic time period increased as consequence of HFD; the decrease being caused by increased apoptosis. This increase in apoptosis was partly associated with increased serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and non-esterified fatty acids. Significance: Hippoccampal neuronal cell death deteriorates glucose homeostasis initially through the modulation of insulin secretion and also causes a decrease in β-cell mass while HFD negatively impacts glucose regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Soh J.,Chonbuk National University | Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Cha Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

We found that Chongkukjang, traditional unsalted fermented soybean, has an antiobesity effect in mice with diet-induced obesity and examined the changes in hepatic transcriptional profiles using cDNA microarray. High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: normal-diet control group (NDcon, 10% of total energy from fat), high-fat diet control group (HDcon, 45% of total energy from fat), and HDcon plus 40% Chongkukjang (HDC) and were fed for 9 weeks. The HDC group mice were pair-fed (isocalorie) with mice in the HDcon group. Final body weight, epididymal fat accumulation, serum total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were improved in HDC group. The cDNA microarray analyses revealed marked alterations in the expression of about 800 genes. Several genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (Acaa2, Mgll, Phyh, Slc27a2, and Slc27a5) were normalized by Chongkukjang consumption. This study showed beneficial effects of Chongkukjang consumption in preventing diet-induced obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. © 2011 JuRyoun Soh et al. Source

Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Daily III J.W.,Daily Manufacturing Inc. | Kim H.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Park S.,Hoseo University
Nutrition Research

Historically, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has been lower in Asian populations compared with those in Western countries. One possible reason for the lower incidence among Asians is that they consume fermented soybean products, which are unique to the traditional Asian diet. Some have hypothesized that dietary phytoestrogens and soy peptides in fermented soybean foods consumed in traditional Asian diets may help prevent and slow the progression of type 2 diabetes. This review evaluates the existing evidence from animal studies and clinical and epidemiologic investigations on fermented soybeans in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nutritional studies performed in animals and intervention studies with humans suggest that the ingestion of soy protein with isoflavones improves glucose control and reduces insulin resistance. Korean fermented soybean products such as doenjang, kochujang, and chungkookjang contain alterations in the structures and content of isoflavonoids and small bioactive peptides, which are produced during fermentation. Several studies revealed improvements in insulin resistance and insulin secretion with the consumption of these fermented products. Therefore, fermented soybean products may help prevent or attenuate the progression of type 2 diabetes. Although the lack of human intervention trials does not permit definitive conclusions, the evidence does suggest that fermented soy products may be better for preventing or delaying the progression of type 2 diabetes compared with nonfermented soybeans. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Bae C.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Cha Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition

The aim of the present study is to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of Doenjang with and without salt in C57BL/6J mice. For the analysis, a total of forty mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group (ND), high-fat diet group (HD), high-fat diet supplemented with 20% Doenjang group (DJ), high-fat diet supplemented with 20% unsalted Doenjang group (NS). During the study period, food intake and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weight and serum triglyceride levels of DJ group were found to be significantly lower than those of the HD and NS groups. Serum total-cholesterol levels of DJ and NS groups were significantly lower as compared to the HD group. There were significant decreases in plasma insulin and leptin levels in DJ group compared with the HD and NS groups. We did not observe any significant changes in the expression of hepatic lipogenic-related gene PPARγ among the HD, DJ and NS groups. However, ACC expression was found to be significantly decreased in DJ group. Lipolysis-related gene (PPARα and CPT-1) expression was significantly higher in the DJ group as compared to HD and NS groups. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that Doenjang supplementation lowers body weight gain and improves obesity-related parameters. © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved. Source

Kim J.Y.,Yonsei University | Kim J.Y.,Woosong University | Kim O.Y.,Dong - A University | Paik J.K.,Yonsei University | And 3 more authors.

The relationships between age-related changes in circulating endogenous metabolites, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and arterial stiffness in 57 middle-Aged (34-55 years), nonobese men were studied over the course of 3 years. Arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-Ankle pulse wave velocities (ba-PWV). Plasma metabolomic profiling was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After 3 years, decreased HDL cholesterol and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and ox-LDL levels were observed. Among 15 identified lipids, lysoPCs (C16:0, C18:0, C18:2, C20:4, and C20:5) and linoleyl carnitine were the major plasma metabolites that contributed to the age-related differences. LysoPC16:0 (variable importance in the projection value, 6.2029) was found as the most important plasma metabolite for evaluating these changes. Changes in lysoPC16:0 levels positively correlated with the changes in 8-epi-PGF2α (r00.608), MDA (r00.413), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r0 0.509), IL-6 (r00.497), and ba-PWV (r00.283) levels. ba-PWV levels positively correlated with the changes in waist-to-hip ratios (WHR), inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. In a subgroup analysis of subjects with decreased ba- PWVs vs. increased ba-PWVs, changes in WHR and levels of lysoPC16:0, ba-PWV, IL-6, 8-epi- PGF2α, MDA, and P-selectin were significantly different. Our results suggest that age-related increases in lysoPC16:0 may contribute to lipid peroxidation, thereby activating proinflammatory phenotypes and arterial stiffness. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

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