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An S.S.A.,Gachon University | Maeng E.H.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Kim M.-K.,Korea University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications, raising issues regarding the possible adverse effects of these metal oxide nanoparticles on human cells. In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of differently charged SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, with mean sizes of either 100 or 20 nm, on the U373MG human glioblastoma cell line. The overall cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against U373MG cells was significantly higher than that of SiO2 nanoparticles. Neither the size nor the surface charge of the ZnO nanoparticles affected their cytotoxicity against U373MG cells. The 20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles were more toxic than the 100 nm nanoparticles against U373MG cells, but the surface charge had little or no effect on their cytotoxicity. Both SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles activated caspase-3 and induced DNA fragmentation in U373MG cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Thus, SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles appear to exert cytotoxic effects against U373MG cells, possibly via apoptosis. © 2014 Kim et al.

Sim W.-J.,Pusan National University | Sim W.-J.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Kim H.-Y.,Pusan National University | Choi S.-D.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yi B.,Sookmyung Womens University | Kim C.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Yang M.,Sookmyung Womens University
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

Biological monitoring is a necessary process for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly, bisphenol A (BPA), in breast milk, because its human risks are not clear yet, and infants, who feed on breast milk, are highly susceptible for EDCs. Concerning biological monitoring of BPA, the HPLC/FLD has been widely used before the LC/MS/MS. However, there was no report, which simultaneously evaluated the two methods in real analyses. Therefore, we analyzed BPA with LC/MS/MS and HPLC/FLD in human breast milk and conducted comparison of two methods in analyzed BPA levels. After establishing optimal condition, e.g. linearity, recovery, reproducibility and free BPA system, we analyzed BPA levels in human breast milk samples (N=100). The LOQs were similar in the two methods, i.e. 1.8 and 1.3ng/mL for the HPLC/FLD and LC/MS/MS assays, respectively. There were strong associations between total BPA levels with the two methods (R2=0.40, p<0.01), however, only 11% of them were analyzed as similar levels with 15% CVs. In addition, the detection range of BPA was broader in the HPLC method than the LC/MS/MS method. However, the BPA levels in the HPLC/FLD analysis were lower than those in the LC/MS/MS analysis (p<0.01). Thus, the differences in BPA levels between the two methods may come from mainly over-estimation with the LC/MS/MS method in low BPA samples and some of poor resolution with the HPLC/FLD in high BPA samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lee J.H.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Kim S.J.,Mokpo Maritime University
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2016

The cavitation damage characteristics of austenitic stainless steel with different concentrations of Ti were investigated. The microstructure of the alloys was observed with optical microscope to identify its correlation with cavitation resistance. Hardness of the alloys was measured to examine its contribution to cavitation damage. It was found that the microstructure played a more significant role in cavitation damage behavior of austenitic stainless steel with Ti than the hardness. The findings in this study revealed that Ti addition in austenitic stainless steel may present either a beneficial or detrimental effect on cavitation damage behavior, depending on the microstructural characteristics. In particular, Ti content of 1.0% represented the most deteriorated cavitation characteristics due to the formation of relatively coarse precipitates. Therefore, control of Ti concentration is essential for marine application of austenitic stainless steel.

Ham J.-O.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Kim B.-G.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Lee S.-H.,Korea Agency for Technology and Standards
Journal of Korean Institute of Metals and Materials | Year: 2011

To measure the sensitivity of the hydrogen embrittlement from plated high strength bolts (SWCH 18A, F11T), the bolt was stressed by a corresponding to the amount of tensile strain of 5% and 20%, and then the bolt developed a crack on the surface. The bolt that didn't have concentrated hydrogen, even though it was stressed by a corresponding the amount of tensile strain of 5% and 20%, no crack developed. However, the bolt that had concentrated hydrogen, developed cracks from the thread crest to the root. It is impossible to measure the hydrogen amount from plated high strength bolts using Hydrogen-Determinator, because of the limitation of the minimum sample size (about 1g as a mass or 5 × 5 × 5 mm3 as a volume). Therefore, the sensitivity of hydrogen embrittlement can be measured by observing the presence of cracks on the surface of plated high strength bolts which are stressed by a corresponding to the amount of tensile strain of 5% and 20%.

Kim J.,Korea University | Nam S.M.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Hyun S.,Korea University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The removal of Zn, As(V), and Cd during the leachate seepage process was measured in single, binary, and ternary solute systems by batch sorption and 1-column flow experiments, followed by a sequential extraction procedure (SEP). In single-solute systems, sorption (Kd *) occurred in the order of As(V) > Zn ≫ Cd, and this sequence did not change in the presence of other solutes. In multi-solute systems, the sorption of Zn (~20%) and Cd (~27%) was enhanced by As(V), while Zn and Cd suppressed the sorption of each other. In all cases, As(V) sorption was not affected by the cations, indicating that As(V) is prioritized by sorption sites to a much greater degree than Zn and Cd. Element retention by column soils was strongly correlated (r2 = 0.77) with Kd *. Across column segments, mass retention was in the order of inlet (36-54%) > middle (26-35%) > outlet (20-31%), except for Cd in the Zn-Cd binary system. The result of SEP revealed that most of the retained Cd (98-99%) and Zn (56-71%) was in the labile fraction (e.g., the sum of F1 and F2) while only 9-12% of As(V) was labile and most (>55%) was specifically adsorbed to Fe/Al oxides. Plots of the labile fraction (flabile) and the fast sorption fraction (ffast) suggested that the kinetics of specific As(V) sorption occur rapidly (ffast > flabile), whereas labile Zn and Cd sorption occurs slowly (flabile > ffast), indicating the occurrence of kinetically limited labile sorption sites, probably due to Zn-Cd competition. In conclusion, the element leaching potential of mine leachate can be greatly attenuated during downgradient soil seepage. However, when assessing the soil attenuation process, the impact of sorption competitors and the lability of adsorbed elements should first be considered. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Lee J.-H.,Pusan National University | Lee J.-H.,Korea Testing and Research Institute | Oh J.-E.,Pusan National University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

A comprehensive examination of nitrosamines was conducted in a water system, which included sewage treatment plants (STPs), river water, and seawater to understand their characteristic occurrence and fates in whole real water system. The concentrations of nitrosamines were highest in the STP influent (1440-29,100 ng/L), followed by the river water (26.0-5180 ng/L), the STP effluent (9.58-310 ng/L), and seawater (44.2-155 ng/L). The samples were especially affected by proximity to the industrial zone and the samples collected near industrial complex had much higher levels than others with different distribution patterns. In the STPs, nitrosamines were mostly eliminated during biological treatment processes (86.7-95.0%), while they were formed through chlorination processes (-. 59.6 to -. 27.7%), which is consistent with previous surveys. The primary clarifier showed insignificant elimination tendencies (5.6-28.2%). Although removal by ultraviolet light was effective (73.2-94.1%), more surveys may be needed because of conflicting results in other studies. Among water quality parameters, nitrosamines in waste water were linked with organic carbon and nitrogen levels. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Park D.W.,Korea Testing and Research Institute
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2015

A centrifuge works on the principle that particles with different densities will separate at a rate proportional to the centrifugal force during high-speed rotation. Dense particles are quickly precipitated, and particles with relatively smaller densities are precipitated more slowly. A decanter-type centrifuge is used to remove, concentrate, and dehydrate sludge in a water treatment process. This is a core technology for measuring the sludge conveyance efficiency improvement. In this study, a smoothed particle hydro-dynamic analysis was performed for a decanter centrifuge used to convey sludge to evaluate the efficiency improvement. This analysis was applied to both the original centrifugal model and the design change model, which was a ball-plate rail model, to evaluate the sludge transfer efficiency. © 2015 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Guo R.,Pusan National University | Sim W.-J.,Pusan National University | Lee E.-S.,Pusan National University | Lee J.-H.,Pusan National University | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010

Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in the sludge samples with a concentration ranging from 3.3 to 54.1 ng/g, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was dominant in wastewater and ranged from 2.3 to 615 ng/L and 3.4 to 591 ng/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) results provided an explanation for this variation in PFC distribution patterns in the aqueous and sludge samples. The fates of PFCs in the WWTPs were related with the functional groups. The PFOS concentrations tended to decrease after treatment in most WWTPs, whereas PFOA increased. The different fates of PFOA and PFOS in WWTPs were attributed to the higher organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficient of perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFASs) than that of the carboxylate analog, indicating the preference of PFASs to partition to sludge. Although industrial WWTPs contained high concentration of PFCs, they are not the main source of PFCs in Korean water environment because of their small release amount. WWTPs located in big cities discharged more PFCs, suggesting household sewage is one of the significant sources of PFCs contamination in the environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Korea Testing And Research Institute | Date: 2016-05-11

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